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Chemistry H

chemistry definitions

QuestionAnswer
The capacity for doing work; it exsists in several forms including chemical, nuclear, electrical, radiant, mechanical, and thermal energies. Energy
The quantity of heat that raises the temperature of 1 gram of pure water 1 degree celcius. Calorie
The quantity of heat required to change an objects temperature by exactly 1 degree celcius. Heat Capacity
A heat-absorbing process. Endothermic Process
The measurement of heat changes for physical and chemical processes. Calorimetry
The pressure exerted by each gas in a gaseous mixture. Partial pressure
The energy that is transferred from on body to another because of a temperature difference. Heat(q)
The SI unit of energy; 4.184 j = 1 calorie joule
The quantity of heat, in joules or calories, required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree celcius Specific Heat capacity
A heat-dissipating process exothermic process
The tendancy of molecules and ions to move torward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout the system. diffusion
The capacity for doing work; it exsists in several forms including chemical, nuclear, electrical, radiant, mechanical, and thermal energies. Energy
The quantity of heat that raises the temperature of 1 gram of pure water 1 degree celcius. Calorie
The quantity of heat required to change an objects temperature by exactly 1 degree celcius. Heat Capacity
A heat-absorbing process. Endothermic Process
The measurement of heat changes for physical and chemical processes. Calorimetry
The pressure exerted by each gas in a gaseous mixture. Partial pressure
The energy that is transferred from on body to another because of a temperature difference. Heat(q)
The SI unit of energy; 4.184 j = 1 calorie joule
The quantity of heat, in joules or calories, required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 degree celcius Specific Heat capacity
A heat-dissipating process exothermic process
The tendancy of molecules and ions to move torward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout the system. diffusion
Equal volumes of gasses at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of particles. Avogadro's hypothesis
At constant volume and tempertaure, the total pressure of a mixture of gasses is the sum of the partial pressures of all the gasses present. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
The heighth of a wave from the origin to the crest amplitude
The arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom in its ground state Electron configuration
A series of energy waves that travel in a vacuum at three times ten to the tenth cm/s; includes radio waves, microwaves, visible light, infrared and ultraviolet light, xrays, and gamma rays. Electromagnetic radiation
The number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of time; There is a inverse relationship between the frequency and wavelength of a wave. Frequency
The pattern of frequencies obtained by passing light emitted by atoms of an element in the gaseous state through a prism; the emission sprectrum of each element is unique to that element. Atomic emission spectrum
A region around the nucleous of an atom where an electron is likely to be moving. energy level
The lowest energy level occupied by an electron when an atom is in its most stable energy state. Ground state
The distance between to adjacent crests of a wave. Wave length
The SI unit of frequency, equal to 1 cycle per second. Hertz
A quantum of light; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that behaves as a particle. Photon
one-half the distance between the nuclei in a molecule consisting of identical atoms Atomic radius
The tendancy for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element. Electronegativity
A vertical column of elements in the periodic table; the constituent elements of a group having similar chemical and physical properties Group
Electrons are ejected by certain metals when they absorb light with a frequency above a threshhold frequency Photoelectric effect
The amount of energy needed to move an electron from its present energy level to the next higher one Quantum
The energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom. Ionization energy
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table. Period
Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first Aufbau Principle
An equation that describes the wavelength of a moving particle; it predicts that all matter exibits wave like motions. de Broglie's Equations
It is impossible to know both the velocity and the postion of a particle at the same time. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, 1 electron enters each orbital until all orbitals contain 1 electron with their spins parallel. Hund's Rule
No more than 2 electrons can occupy an atomic orbital; these electrons must have opposite spins. Pauli exclusion principle
When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties. Periodic Law
A process in which several atomic oribitals (such as s and p orbitals) mix to form the same number of equivalent hybrid orbitals. Hybridization
Any atom or group of atoms with a negative charge. Anion
A molecule, like water, in which one or more atoms is slightly negative and one or more is slightly positive, unless molecular geometry causes the polarities to cancel each other out. Polar molecule
A pair of valence electrons that is not involved in bonding. Unshared pair
Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory; because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust there shapes so that valence electron pairs are as far apart as possible. VSEPR theory
The weakest kind of intermolecular attraction; this attraction is thought to be caused by the motion of electrons. Dispersion force
A notation that depicts valence electrons as dots around the atomic symbol of the element; the symbol represents the inner electrons and atomic nucleus; also called Lewis dot structures. Electron dot structure
Atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to require the stable electron structure of a noble gas, usually 8 valence electrons. Octet rule
Any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge. Cation
A chemical formula that shows the arrangment of atoms in a molecule or a polyatomic ion; each dash between 2 atoms indicates a pair of shared electrons. Structural formula
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom. Valence electron
A term used to describe the weakest intermolecular attractions; These include dispersion forces and dipole interactions. van der Walls force
A relatively strong intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom in the same molecule or one nearby. Hydrogen bond
An inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid; it causes the surface to behave as if it were a thin skin. Surface tension
A solution in which the solvent is water. Aqueous Solutions
Dissolved particles in a solution. Solute
A surface active agent; any substance with molecules that interfere with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules, reducing surface tension; soaps and detergents are surfactants. Surfactant
The dissolving medium in a solution. Solvent
A compound that conducts an electric current in aqueous solution or in the molten state; all ionic compounds are electrolytes, but most covalent compounds are not. Electrolyte
A compound that does not conduct electric current in aqueous solution or in the molten state. Nonelectrolyte
A mixture whose particles are intermediate in size between those of a suspension and a solute solution. Colloids
The chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed. Brownian motion
To lose water of hydration; the process occurs when the hydrate has a vapor pressure higher than that of water vapor in the air. Effloresce
A solution containing the maximum amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure; an equilibrium exsists between undissolved solute and ions in solution. Saturated solution
Describes liquids that dissolve in each other. Miscible
At a given temperature the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid. Henry's Law
The concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution. Molarity
A mixture from which some of the particles settle out slowly upon standing. Suspensions
Scattering of light by particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible. Tyndal effect
The colloidal dispersion of one liquid in another. Emulsion
A term describing salts and other compounds that remove moisture from the air. Hygroscopic
A term describing a substance that removes sufficient water from the air to form a solution; The solution formed has a lower vapor pressure than that of the water in the air. Deliquescents
Describes liquids that are in soluble in one another; oil and water are immiscible. Immiscible
A solution that contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature; excess solute precipitates if a seed crystal is added. Supersaturated solution
A compound that produces hydrogen ions in a solution, is a hydrogen-ion donor, or an electron-pair acceptor. Acid
A solution in which the pH remains relatively constant when small amounts of acid or base are added; a buffer can be either a solution of a weak acid and the salt of a weak acid or a solution of a weak base with the salt of a weak base. Buffer
The positive ion formed when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion; all hydrogen ions in aqueous solution are present as hydronium ions. Hydronium ion
Method used to determine the concentration of a solution (often an acid or base); A solution of known concentration (the standard) is added to a measured amount of the solution of unknown concentration until an indicator signals the endpoint. Titration
A compound that produces hydroxide ions in soultion, is a hydrogen-ion acceptor, or an electron-pair donor. Base
a number used to denote the hydrogen-ion concentration, or acidity, of a solution; it is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution. pH
The negative ion formed when a water molecule loses a hydrogen ion. Hydroxide ion
An organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbon
A very large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of repeating small molecules, known as monomers. Polymer
An organic compound having an -OH(hydroxl) group; The general structure is R-OH. Alcohol
A name originally given to the arenes because many of them have pleasant odors; any compound with bonding like that of benzene. Aromatic compound
Proteins that act as biological catalysts; most of the reactions that occur in cells require catalysts. Enzyme
A polymer of the ribonucleotides (RNA) or deoxyribonucleotides (DNA) found primarily in cell nuclei; Nucleic acids play an important role in the transmission of hereditary characteristics, protein synthesis, and the control of cell activities. Nucleic acid
Any peptide with more than 100 amino acids. Protein
an organic compound in which all carbon atoms are joined by single covalent bonds; It contains the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Saturated compounds
The control process by which hydrocarbons are broken down or rearranged into smaller, more useful molecules. Cracking
A simple molecule that repeatedly Monomers
An organic compound having amino (-NH2) in the carboxylic acid (-COOH) groups in the same molecule; proteins are made from the 20 naturally occured amino acids. Amino acid
The name given to monomers and polymers of aldehydes and ketones that have numerous hydroxyl groups; Sugars and starches are carbohydrates. Carbohydrate
A member of a large class of relatively water-insoluable inorganic compounds; Fats, oils, and waxes are lipids. Lipid
One of the monomers that make up DNA and RNA; It consists of nitrogen-containing base ( a purine or pyrimidine), a sugar ( ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group. Nucleotides
The process used to make soap; it involves the hydrolysis of fats or oils by a hot aqueous alkali-metal hydroxide. Saponification
An organic compound with one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds. Unsaturated Compounds
Created by: HJ