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Chemistry Ch 9

LCA Chemistry Ch 9 Chemical calculations

Mole The amount of substance (matter) contained in 6.022 x 10^23(Avogadro's number) particles.
Molar Mass (MM) The mass of one mole of any pure substance. These particles can be ions, atoms, molecules, or formula units. The weight of one mole of the substance.
Structural Formulas Show the types of atoms involved, the exact composition of each molecule, and the arrangement of chemical bonds. Not only have the exact number of atoms, but also show the structure.
Molecular Formulas the types and numbers of atoms involved as they appear in the molecule. Show the actual number of atoms of each element in the substance.
Empirical Formulas Tell what elements are present and give the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms in the compound. Show only the ratio of atoms.
Percent Composition Describes the mass composition of a compound by showing what percentage of its total mass comes from each element. Is always percent by weight, unless stated to be by volume. Deals with mass, not number of particles.
Law of Definite Composition Says that the ratio of elements in a compound is constant for every particle in that compound.
Stoichiometry About the mathematical relationships between the amounts of reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Literally means "to measure the elements."
Mole Ratio the ratio between elements within a compound as indicated by the subscripts in a balanced equation.
Limiting Reactant A substance that is used up before other reactants in a reaction, preventing more products from forming.
Excess Reactants The other reactant (leftover substance
Theoretical Yield The maximum amount of product that could be created from a given amount of reactant.
Actual Yield The measured amount of product at the end of a reaction. Normally expressed in grams of the product.
Percent Yield The percentage of the theoretical yield that was actually produced. It is calculated by taking a ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield and multiplying it by 100%.
Avogadro's Number The number 6.022 x 10^23 named in honor of the Italian physicist. The number of carbon atoms in exactly 12g of C.
Created by: IcanDance