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Physics Terms Qrt. 2

TermDefinition
Momentum Quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity an object. P=mv
Impulse The product of force and time over which a force acts
Impulse-Momentum Theorem F=(change in momentum)/(change in time)
Conservation of Momentum The total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects.
Elastic Collision A collision in which two objects the total momentum and KE are conserved.
Inelastic Collision A collision in which two objects stick together completely after colliding
Rotational Motion Movement in a circle or spinning
Radians Angle formed when the arc length is equal to the radius of a circle
Angular Displacement Change in angle measurement
Angular Speed Rate at which an object moves through an angle.
Angular Acceleration Rate of change in angular speed.
Tangential Acceleration The linear acceleration of a particle at any point on the curved path.
Centripetal Acceleration Acceleration towards the center of a circle.
Centripetal Force Net force acting towards the center of a circle keeping an object moving in a circular path
Centrifugal Force Imaginary outward force felt by observers moving in a circular path.
Gravitational Force A centripetal force that keeps objects in orbit.
Escape Speed Speed needed to escape the force of gravity.
Torque A quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object about some axis.
Lever Arm r(sin theta) or d(sin theta)
Center of Mass Point at which the mass of a body can be considered to be concentrated when analyzing transitional motion.
Moment of Inertia Tendency of an object to resist a change in rotational motion.
Rotational Equilibrium An object with no net torques acting upon it
Newton’s 2nd Law for Rotational Motion The relationship between the net external torque and the angular acceleration.
Angular Momentum The quantity of rotation of a body, which is the product of its moment of inertia and its angular velocity.
Rotational Kinetic Energy The final angular velocity divided by the time and the average angular velocity is equal to half the final angular velocity.
Fluid A non-solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to flow.
Mass Density Concentration of matter in an object.
Buoyant Force Upward force exerted by a fluid on an object that is immersed.
Archimedes’ Principle The upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces .
Pressure Magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area.
Barometer Device used to measure atmosphere pressure.
Pascals Unit of pressure.
Pascal’s principle Pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and the walls of the container.
Ideal Fluid Fluid with no internal friction.
Venturi effect, Speed of fluid increases when cross sectional area decreases.
Bernoulli’s principle, The pressure in a fluid decreases as the velocity of the fluid decreases.
Ideal gas law (P1V1)/T1=(P2V2)/T2
Temperature Measure of the average KE in an object.
Internal Energy The energy of a substance due to both the random motion of its particles and to the potential energy that results from the distances between the particles.
Thermal Equilibrium The state at which 2 bodies in physical contact with one another have identical temperatures.
Thermal Expansion In general, increase the temperature of a substance, increases its volume.
Heat Energy transferred between objects because of a difference of temperatures.
Specific heat capacity The quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1K or 1 degree Celsius
Calorimetry An experimental procedure used to measure the energy transferred from one substance to another as heat
Latent Heat The energy per unit mass that is transferred during a phase change of a substance.
Phase Change Physical change in substance from one state of matter to another at a constant temperature and pressure.
Latent heat of fusion Energy needed to melt 1 Kg.
Latent heat of vaporization Energy needed to boil 1 Kg.
Thermal Conduction Transfer heat through direct contact.
Thermal Convection Transfer of heat that involves bulk movement of matter.
Radiation Transfer through electromagnetic waves.
Simple harmonic motion Vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium.
Hooke's Law The restoring force of a spring depends on the stiffness of the spring and the displacement from the spring's equilibrium point.
Spring Constant The stiffness of the spring.
Amplitude Maximum displacement from equilibrium.
Period The time it take for a complete cycle to occur.
Frequency The number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time.
Waves Undulation or disturbance that transfers energy.
Medium Physical environment through which a disturbance can travel.
Mechanical Wave A wave that requires a medium to travel.
Pulse Wave A wave that consist of a single pulse.
Periodic Wave Wave formed by the periodic motion of a wave source.
Transverse Wave Wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction they travel.
Longitudinal Wave Wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction they travel.
Crest Highest point above the equilibrium
Trough Lowest point below equilibrium.
Wave Length Distance between to adjacent points.
Compression Region which the density and pressure on a longitudinal wave is the least
Rarefaction Region which the density and pressure on a longitudinal wave is the least
Created by: Tim Duncan