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# Physics Terms Qrt. 2

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Momentum | Quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity an object. P=mv |

Impulse | The product of force and time over which a force acts |

Impulse-Momentum Theorem | F=(change in momentum)/(change in time) |

Conservation of Momentum | The total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects. |

Elastic Collision | A collision in which two objects the total momentum and KE are conserved. |

Inelastic Collision | A collision in which two objects stick together completely after colliding |

Rotational Motion | Movement in a circle or spinning |

Radians | Angle formed when the arc length is equal to the radius of a circle |

Angular Displacement | Change in angle measurement |

Angular Speed | Rate at which an object moves through an angle. |

Angular Acceleration | Rate of change in angular speed. |

Tangential Acceleration | The linear acceleration of a particle at any point on the curved path. |

Centripetal Acceleration | Acceleration towards the center of a circle. |

Centripetal Force | Net force acting towards the center of a circle keeping an object moving in a circular path |

Centrifugal Force | Imaginary outward force felt by observers moving in a circular path. |

Gravitational Force | A centripetal force that keeps objects in orbit. |

Escape Speed | Speed needed to escape the force of gravity. |

Torque | A quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object about some axis. |

Lever Arm | r(sin theta) or d(sin theta) |

Center of Mass | Point at which the mass of a body can be considered to be concentrated when analyzing transitional motion. |

Moment of Inertia | Tendency of an object to resist a change in rotational motion. |

Rotational Equilibrium | An object with no net torques acting upon it |

Newton’s 2nd Law for Rotational Motion | The relationship between the net external torque and the angular acceleration. |

Angular Momentum | The quantity of rotation of a body, which is the product of its moment of inertia and its angular velocity. |

Rotational Kinetic Energy | The final angular velocity divided by the time and the average angular velocity is equal to half the final angular velocity. |

Fluid | A non-solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to flow. |

Mass Density | Concentration of matter in an object. |

Buoyant Force | Upward force exerted by a fluid on an object that is immersed. |

Archimedes’ Principle | The upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces . |

Pressure | Magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area. |

Barometer | Device used to measure atmosphere pressure. |

Pascals | Unit of pressure. |

Pascal’s principle | Pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and the walls of the container. |

Ideal Fluid | Fluid with no internal friction. |

Venturi effect, | Speed of fluid increases when cross sectional area decreases. |

Bernoulli’s principle, | The pressure in a fluid decreases as the velocity of the fluid decreases. |

Ideal gas law | (P1V1)/T1=(P2V2)/T2 |

Temperature | Measure of the average KE in an object. |

Internal Energy | The energy of a substance due to both the random motion of its particles and to the potential energy that results from the distances between the particles. |

Thermal Equilibrium | The state at which 2 bodies in physical contact with one another have identical temperatures. |

Thermal Expansion | In general, increase the temperature of a substance, increases its volume. |

Heat | Energy transferred between objects because of a difference of temperatures. |

Specific heat capacity | The quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1K or 1 degree Celsius |

Calorimetry | An experimental procedure used to measure the energy transferred from one substance to another as heat |

Latent Heat | The energy per unit mass that is transferred during a phase change of a substance. |

Phase Change | Physical change in substance from one state of matter to another at a constant temperature and pressure. |

Latent heat of fusion | Energy needed to melt 1 Kg. |

Latent heat of vaporization | Energy needed to boil 1 Kg. |

Thermal Conduction | Transfer heat through direct contact. |

Thermal Convection | Transfer of heat that involves bulk movement of matter. |

Radiation | Transfer through electromagnetic waves. |

Simple harmonic motion | Vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium. |

Hooke's Law | The restoring force of a spring depends on the stiffness of the spring and the displacement from the spring's equilibrium point. |

Spring Constant | The stiffness of the spring. |

Amplitude | Maximum displacement from equilibrium. |

Period | The time it take for a complete cycle to occur. |

Frequency | The number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time. |

Waves | Undulation or disturbance that transfers energy. |

Medium | Physical environment through which a disturbance can travel. |

Mechanical Wave | A wave that requires a medium to travel. |

Pulse Wave | A wave that consist of a single pulse. |

Periodic Wave | Wave formed by the periodic motion of a wave source. |

Transverse Wave | Wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction they travel. |

Longitudinal Wave | Wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction they travel. |

Crest | Highest point above the equilibrium |

Trough | Lowest point below equilibrium. |

Wave Length | Distance between to adjacent points. |

Compression | Region which the density and pressure on a longitudinal wave is the least |

Rarefaction | Region which the density and pressure on a longitudinal wave is the least |