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Physics: Units 5-9

TermDefinition
Momentum quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity of an object
Impulse product of force and time over which a force acts
Impulse-Momentum Theorem I=Fnet x delta t= delta p
Law of Conservation of Momentum the total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects
Inelastic Collision a collision in which two objects stick together completely after colliding
Elastic Collision a collision in which the total momentum and KE is conserved (objects bounce off one another with no permanent deformation)
Rotational Motion movement in a circle or spinning
Radian angle formed when an arc length is equal to the radius of a circle
Revolution one time around the radius of a circle
Angular Displacement change in an angle (delta theta)
Tangential Speed the linear speed of something moving in a circular path
Angular Speed rate at which an object moves through an angle
Centripetal Force net force acting toward the center of a circle keeping an object moving in a circular path
Tangential Acceleration how the tangential velocity of a point changes with time (same as linear acceleration but is specific to tangential direction)
Angular Acceleration rate of change in angular speed
Rotational Kinematics applying kinematics equations to rotational problems
Centripetal Acceleration acceleration towards the center of a circle
Centrifugal Force imaginary outward force felt by observers moving in a circular path
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation F=(GxM1xM2)/r squared
Universal Gravitation Constant 6.67408x10 to the -11 power
Kepler's Second Law of Planetary Motion an imaginary line drawn from the sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals
Kepler's Third Law of Planetary Motion The square of a plant's orbital period is proportional to the cube of the average distance between the planet and the sun
Black Hole a region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter can escape
Kepler's 1st Law of Planetary Motion Each planet travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun with the sun at one of its focal points
Center of Gravity the point at which the mass of a body can be considered to be concentrated when analyzing translational motion
Torque a quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object about some axis
Lever Arm r(sin of theta) or d(sin of theta)
Rotational Equilibrium when the net force equals zero
Moment of Inertia tendency of an object to resist a change in rotational motion
Angular Momentum product of the moment of inertia and the angular velocity
Conservation of Angular Momentum lowering the moment of inertia will increase the rotational speed
Translational Kinetic Energy KE=1/2(m)(v squared)
Rotational Kinetic Energy KE=1/2(I)(w squared)
Fluid a non-solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to flow
Mass Density concentration of matter in an object
Buoyant Force upward force exerted by a fluid on an object that is sitting in or floating on a fluid
Pressure magnitude of the force on a surface per unit of area
Ideal Fluid a fluid with no internal friction
Archimedes' Principle an object completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences an upward buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Pascal's Principle pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point in the fluid as well as the walls of the container
Venturi Effect the speed of a fluid increases when the cross sectional area decreases
Flow Rate product of area times volume for fluid in a pipe
Bernoulli's Principle the pressure of a fluid decreases as the velocity of a fluid increases
Ideal Gas Law (P1V1)/T1=(P2V2)/T2
Temperature the measure of the average KE of the particles of the substance
Internal Energy the energy of a substance due to both the random motion of its particles and to the potential energy that results from the distances and alignments of the particles
Thermal Equilibrium the state in which two physical bodies in contact with each other have identical temperatures
Heat energy transferred between objects because of a difference in temperature
Specific Heat Capacity the quantity of heat required to raise a unit of mass of homogeneous material by 1K or 1C given constant pressure and volume
Calorimetry an experimental procedure used to measure the energy transferred from one substance to another as heat
Phase Change physical change in a substance from one state of matter to another at constant temperature and pressure
Latent Heat the energy per unit of mass that is transferred during a phase change
Hooke's Law the restoring force of a string depends on the stiffness of the spring and the displacement from the string's equilibrium point
Simple Harmonic Motion vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from the equilibrium
Medium physical environment through which a disturbance can travel
Mechanical Waves a wave that requires a medium to travel through (sound waves)
Pulse Wave a wave that consists of a single traveling pulse
Transverse Wave a wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction that the wave is traveling
Compressional Wave a wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction that the wave is traveling
Compression region of a longitudinal wave where the pressure and density are at a maximum
Rarefraction region of a longitudinal wave where the pressure and the density are at a minimum
Constructive Interference a combining of two or more waves that results in a wave that is a sum of the two colliding crests/ troughs
Destructive Interference a combining of two waves that results in the waves and troughs canceling each other out to create either a smaller wave or no wave at all
Infrasonic Waves sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz
Ultrasonic Waves sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 Hz
Pitch a measure of how high or low the sound is perceived to be, depending on the frequency
Doppler Effect an observed change in frequency when there is relative motion between the source of waves and the observer
Intensity the rate at which energy flows through a unit perpendicular to the direction of wave motion
Decibel a dimensionless unit that describes the ratio of two intensities of sound
Resonance a phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of a force applied to an object matches the natural frequency; resulting in a large amplitude of vibration
Fundamental Frequency the lowest frequency of vibration in a standing wave
Harmonic Series a series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and successive harmonics
Timbre the musical quality of a tone resulting in the combination of harmonics present at different intensities
Beat periodic variation in amplitude of a wave that is the superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies
Reverberation prolongation of a sound
Electromagnetic Wave a wave consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, which radiate outward from the source at the speed of light
Luminous Flux rate at which light is emitted from a source (measured in lumens)
Illuminance luminous flux divided by surface area
Reflection the change in direction of an electromagnetic wave at a surface that causes it to move away from the surface
Virtual Image an image where light rays appear to diverge even though they aren't actually focused there; cannot be projected onto a screen
Concave Spherical Mirror a mirror whose reflecting surface is a segment from the inside of a sphere
Real Image an image formed by intersecting of light rays; can be projected onto a screen
Paraxial Rays light rays that are near to the principal axis of a mirror and are used in ray diagrams
Spherical Aberration a blurred image resulting from a spherically shaped mirror
Magnification the process of enlarging something in appearance rather than physical size
Convex Spherical Mirror a mirror with a reflecting surface of an outward-curved segment of a sphere
Linear Polarization the alignment of electromagnetic waves in such a way that the vibrations of the electric fields in each of the waves are parallel to each other
Refraction the bending of a wave front as a wave passes between two substances in which the speed of the wave differs
Index of Refraction the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given transparent medium
Snell's Law n1sin(theta1)=n2sin(theta2)
Lens a transparent object that refracts light rays such that they converge or diverge to create an image
Converging Lens thick in the middle and thinner on the edges (convex)
Diverging Lens thin in the middle and thicker on the edges (concave)
Total Internal Reflection the complete reflection that takes place within a substance when the angle of incidence of light striking a surface boundary is greater than the critical angle
Critical Angle the angle of incidence at which refracted light makes an angle of 90 degrees with the normal
Created by: 17fermar