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Chemistry Finalll

I can't believe I really have to go back and take this final during my summer.

matter anything that has a mass and occupies space
element basic substances that make up all of the matter in our world
atom infinitesimally small building blocks of matter
molecule two or more atoms are joined together in specific shapes
mixture combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity
pure substance matter that has a distinct property and a composition that doesn't vary from sample to sample
compound substances composed of two or more elements, so they contain two or more kinds of atoms.
intensive property a property that does not depend on the amount of the sample being tested (BP, Density)
extensive property a sample that does depend on the quantity of the sample (mass, volume)
physical property can be measured without changing the identity and composition of the sutace (color, odor)
chemical property describe the way a substance may chane or react to form other substances (flammability)
mass a measure of the amount of material in an object. (kg ~ 2.2 lbs)
temperature a measure of the hotness or coldness of an object.
density a property of matter defined as the amount of mass in a unit volume of the substance D=M/V
precision a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another
accuracy how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value
converstion factor a fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in diferent units
C --> F F = 9/5(C)+32
F --> C C= 5/9(F-32)
C --> K K = C = 273.15
subatomic particles what the atom is composed of
proton resides in the nucleaus of the atom, charge is +1
electron have a charge of -1
neutron resides in nucleus of atom, has no charge
isotope atoms with identical atomic numbers but diferent mass numbers
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic weight avg atomic mass of each element
periodic table arangement of elements in order of increasing atomic bumber with elements having similar properties plaed in vertical columns
matallic elements left & middle of PT share prprerties suchas luster and high electrical and heat conductivity, solids at room temp.
nonmetallic elements room temp some are gaseous, some solid, one liquid. different in appearance and other properties
metalloids in the way of properties, these fall between metals and nonmetals
groups (families) vertical columns of periodic table
transition elements transition elements
diatomic a molecule that is made up of two atoms
molecular formulas chemical formulas that indicate actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecule
empirical formulas chem formulas that give only the relative number of atoms of each type in a molecule
molecular compounds compounds that are composed of molecules
ionic compounds a coumpound that contains both negatively and positively charged ions
monoatomic ions simpler ions
polyatomic ions consist of atoms joined as in a molecule, but have a net positive or negative charge
anion negatively charged ion
cation positively charged ion
stoichiometry examines quantities of sustances consumed and preduced in chemical reacions
law of conservation of mass states that mass can neither be created or destroyed
chemical equation the consise way in which chemical reactions are created
combination reaction two or more substances react to form one product
decomposition reaction one substance undergoes a reaction to produce two or more other substances
combustion reaction rapid reactions that produce a flame. most involve O2 from air as a reactant
formula weight sum of the atomic weights of each atom in its chemical formula.
molecular weight total weight of a molecule
percentage compostion percentage by mass contributed by each element in the substance
mole amount of matter that contains as many objects as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of isotopically pure 12C.
avogardos number 6.022 x 10^23
molar mass mass in grams of one mole of the substance
empirical formula tells us relative number of atoms of each element it contains
molecular formula always a whole number multiple of the corresponding subscripts of the empirical formula
limiting reactant the reactant in a reaction that is completely consumed, thus controlling when the reacton stops
theoretical yield quantity of product that is calculated to form when all of the limiting reactant reacts
aqueous solution solutions in which water is the dissolving medium
strong electrolyte solutes that exist in solution completely or nearly completely as ions
weak electrolyte solutes that exist in the solution mostly in the form of molecules with only a small fraction in the form of ions
nonelectrolyte a substance that does not form ions in solutions
molecular compounds in water usually consists of intact molecules dispersed throughout the solution. Most molecular compounds are nonelectrolytes.
ionic compounds in water ions are separated by the H2O molecules and solvated which helps stabilize the ions in solution and prevents cations and anions from recombining.
precipitation reactions reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product.
solubility the amound of substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent at that temperature
chemical equilibrium the balance between opposing processes that determines the relative numbers of ions and neutral molecules.
exchange (metathesis) reactions reactions in which positive ions and negative ions appear to exchange partners conform to the following general equation : AX + BY --> AY + BX
complete ionic equation an equation written with all soluble strong electrolytes shown as ions
net ionic equation whats left when spectator ions are eliminated
spectator ions ions that appear in identical forms in both the reactants and products of an equation
acid substances that ionize in aqueous solutions to form H ions, thereby increasing the concentration of H ions.
acid/base reactions (neutralization) produces a water and a salt
oxidation loss of electrons by a substance
reduction gain of electrons by a substance
redox reactions oxidation-reduction; electrons are transferred between reactants.
activity series a list of metals arranged in order of decreasing ease of oxidation
concentration the designated amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent or quantity of solution
molarity concentration of a solution as the number of moles of solute in a liter of solution
dilution of stock solutions by adding water to a concentrated stock solution, you can obtain a solution of lower concentration.
titration combining a sample of the solution with a reagent solution of known concentratino to find out the concentration of a particular solute in a solution
equivalence point the point at which stoichiometrically equivelent quantities are brought together
indicator a substance added to a solution to indeicate by a color change the point at which the added solute has reacted with all the solute present in the solution
base substances that accept H+ions. produce OH- ions when dissolved in water
I- Iodide
HI Hydroiodic Acid
IO2- iodite
IO3- Iodate
IO4- Periodate
CO3(2-) Carbonate
SO4(2-) Sulfate
NO3- Nitrate
H2CO3 Carbonic Acid
H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid
HNO3 Nitric Acid
S(2-) Sulfide
NO2- Nitrite
HNO2 Nitrous Acid
For a metal to be a cation it must _ electrons lose
For a nonmetal to become an anion it must _ electrons Gain
Ca3N2 (comp.) Calcium Nitride
NO2 (comp.) Nitrogen Dioxide
Cu2SO4 Copper (I) Sulfate
Al2S3 Aluminum Sulfide
Na2CO3 Sodium Carbonate
Iron (III) Sulfide Fe2S3
Phosphorous Trioxide PO3
Ammonium Chloride NH4Cl
Magnesium Nitrite Mg(N02)2
Sodium Hypochlorite NClO
sp3 hybridization in the carbon atom one s orbital is hybridized with 3 p orbitals creating 4 new orbitals whose energy is less than p but more than s
sp Hybridized C atom Sigma bonds? = 2P orbital? = 2Pi bonds? = 2total bonds? 4
alpha particle 4/2He
beta decay electron. (0/-1 e)
positron positive electron (0/+1e)
half life how long it takes for something to be half way used up. K=.693/half life then ln(Nt/No)= -KT
rad and rem. beter to use in measuring exposure a technician has experienced & why? Rem is better. It incorporates Rad into it. rem measures how much damage the absortion has done and what kind of rad exposure.
fission/fusion, which is used today fission is splitting of an atom into two smaller atoms. Fusion is the comination of two atoms. fission is used because fusion must be done at ridiculously high temperatures.
trend for atom size in IA metals. How does each compare to its parent atom Atom size decreases down the PT. Ions are smaller than parent atoms
electron affinity increases across PT (L to R). Why? the farther right you go the fewer electrons the element needs, so the electron affinity increases.
difference in ionization energy and electron affinity? IE is the amount of energy required to remove and electron, while electron affinity refers to the energy needed to gain an electron. The higher the electron affinity the more an element has nonmetallic characteristics.
STP 760mmHg, 1atm
Pressure conveys the idea of a force, a push that tends to move something in a given direction. P is the Force that acts on a given Area ( P = F/A )
Boyle's Law the volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure. PV = Constant
Charles' Law the volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature V/T = Constant.
Avogadro's Hypothesis equal vlumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.
Avogadro's Law the volume of a gas maintained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas. V= Constant(n)
Combined gas law equation
ideal gas equation PV = nRT, P1V1 = P2V2
gas constant the term R in the ideal gas equation.
daltons law of partial pressures the total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures hat each would exert if it were present alone. Pt = P1 + P2 + p3...
mole fraction ratio n1/n2. a dimensionless number that expresses the ratio of the number of moles of one component to the total number of moles in the mixture.
kinetic molecular theory a model that helps us picture what happens to gas particles as experimental conditions such as pressure or temperature change
effusion escape of gas molecules through a tine hole one molecule at a time
diffusion spread of one substance throughout a space or throughout a second substance
Graham's law of effusion R1/R2= Square root of MW2/MW1
thermodynamics the study of energy and its formations
kinetic energy the energy of motion
potential energy can possess this by virtue of its position relative to other objects
system portion singled out for study
surroundings everything but the system
work energy used to cause an object with mass to move
force any kind of push or pull exerted on an object
heat the energy used to cause the temperature of an object to increase
thermal energy
energy the capacity to do work or transfer heat
first law of thermodynamics energy is conserved
endothermic the system absorbs heat
exothermic the system releases heat
state-function a property of a system that is determined by specifying the systems condition or state; depends only on present state of system
pressure volume work the wrok involved in expansoin or compression of a gas
enthalpy accounts for heat flow in processes occuring at constant pressurewhen no forms of work are performed other that PV work.
enthalpy of reaction the enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction
calorimetry the measurement of heat flow
heat capacity the amount of heat required to raise its temperature by 1K
molar heat capacity the heat capacity of one mole of a substance
specific heat heat capacity of one gram of a substace
bomb calorimeter a device that helps with the study of combustion reactions
enthalpy of formation enthalpy change associated with a proces that forms a compound from its constituent elements
standard enthalpy of formation change in enthalpy for the reaction that forms one mole of the compund from its elements
fuel value the energy released when one gram of a material is combusted
fossil fuels fuel such as coal petroleum and natural gas which have formed over millions of years ago rom decompostion of plants and animals
renewable energy and examples energy sources that are essentially inexhaustable
electronic structure the arrangement of electrons in atoms
electromagnetic radiation light we can see with our eyes
wavelength distance between two adjacent peaks
frequency number of complete wavelengths
quantum smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed as electromagnetic radiation.
photons an individual energy packet
spectrum radiation separated into different wavelengths
continuous spectrum spectrum containing all wavelengths
line spectrum spectrum containing radiation of only specific wavelengths
ground state lowest energy state
excited state highest energy state
uncertainty principle heisenbergs principle
orbitals defines a specific distribution of electron density in space.
electron shell colection of orbitals with the same value of n
subshell set of orbitals with same n and l values
electron configuration the way electrons are distributed among the various oritals of an atom
valence electrons outer shell electrons -- used in binding with other electrons
core electron iner shell electrons
representative elements s and p block together
transition elements middle elements
lanthanide series top row of F block metals
actinide series final row of PT
f-block metals all the underneath rows in the PT
electromagnetic spectrom wavelength --->gamma, x, ultraviolet, visible, ingrared, micro, radio<---frequency
metallic character the more an element exhibits the physical and chemical properties of a metal, the greater its metallic character. metals tend to hav elow ionization energies and therefore tend to form positive ions relatively easily
nonmetallic character vary greatly in appearance
alkali metals soft metallic solids. silvery, high thermal and electrical conductivities.
alkaline earth metals harder and more dense and melt at higher temps than alkali metals.
halogens salt formers. nonmetals. melting and BPs increase with increasing atomic number
noble gases all nonmetals that are gases at room temperature. all monatomic.
chemical bond two atoms or ions strongly attached to each other
ionic bond eletrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge.
covalent bont sharing of electrons between two atoms
metallic bond found in matals. each atom in a metal is bonded to several neighboring atoms
octet rule atoms tend to gain lose or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons.
lewis symbol consists of chemical symbol of element plus a dot for each valence electron
bond polarity describes the sharing of electrons between atoms
nonpolar covalent bond one in which the electrons are shared queally between two atoms.
polar covalent bond one of the atoms exerts a greater attraction for the bonding electrons taht the other
electronegativity the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself
formal charge charge the atom would have if all the atoms in the molecule had the same electronegativity.
resonance structure placement of electrons is differernt than in lewis structures
sigma bonds end on overlap
pi bonds sidways overlap
vsepr valence shell electron particle repulsion
nucleons subatomic particles that reside in the nucleus
radionuclides nuclei that are radioactive
radioisotopes atoms containing radionucleides
gamma radiation high energy photons. represented as 0/0y.
electron capture capture by the nucleus of an electron from the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.
belt of stability above, beta particle emission. below, positron emission or electron capture.
radioactive series a series of nuclear reactions that begins with an unstable nucleus and terminates with a stable one
nuclear transmutations when a nucleus changes its identity because its struck by a neutron or another neucleus
particle accelerators atom smashers
transuranium elements they occur immediately following uranium in the periodic table
geiger counter, detects and measures radioactivity
chain reactions reactions that multiply
critical mass amount of fissionable material large enough to maintain the chain reaction with a constant rate of fission
supercritical mass a mass in excess of a critical mass
control rod regulate flux of neutrons to keep the reation chain self sustainingwhile preventing the reactor core from overheating
moderator slows down neutrons so they can be more readily absorbed by the fuel
ioniing radiation radiation that causes ionization, far more damazing
non ionizing radiation generally of a lower energy.
free radical unstable and highly reactiv OH molecule.
gray SI unit of absorbed dose.
Created by: katierow



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