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Chemical Bonds

Physical Science

Electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom valence electrons
Reflects that elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electronic configuration as a noble gas electronic configuration as a noble gas octet rule
Elements that have a single electron shell which accommodates only 2 electrons, are exceptions to the octet rule include electronic configuration as a noble gas. Hydrogen (H), Helium(He)
Atoms that do not have 8 valence electrons _________ with other elements in order to have an electron configuration similar to a _________ react noble gas
Model of an atom with its valence electrons electron dot diagram
Some elements achieve ___________ electron configurations through the __________ of electrons between atoms stable transfer
When the transfer occurs, the atoms no longer have the same number of protons and electrons so they are no longer __________ neutral
An atom that has a net positive or negative electric charge ion
Atom gains electrons to form an __________ with a negative charge anion
Atom loses electrons to form a _________ with a positive charge cation
The force that holds atoms or ions together as a unit chemical bond
The force that holds cations and anions together (chemical bond between ions) ionic bond
An ionic bond forms when __________ are transferred from one atom to another electrons
The __________ the ionization energy, the easier it is to remove an electron from an atom lower
The amount of energy used to remove an electron is called ionization energy
Ionization energies tend to _________ from left to right across a period increase
It takes more energy to remove an electron from a ________ than from a metal in the same period nonmetal
Ionization energies tend to __________ from the top of a group to the bottom. decrease
A notation that shows what elements a compound contains and the ratio of the atoms or ions of these elements in the compound chemical formula
Solids whose particles are arranged in a lattice structure are called crystals
Crystals are classified into groups based on the ___________of their crystals shape
Two factors that determine the arrangement of ions in a ionic crystal the ratio of ions the relative sizes of the ions
The symmetrical three-dimensional arrangement of atoms inside a crystal crystal lattice
The charge on an ion is also called its _________ oxidation number
Atoms that do not have 8 valence electrons _________ with other elements in order to become stable as the noble gases react
Names of anions are formed by placing the suffix _________ after part of the name of the nonmetal -ide
Show the number of atoms present in each molecule subscripts
Ions come together to form neutral compounds
Chemical bond in which 2 NONMETAL atoms share a pair of valence electrons covalent bond
Model that shows orbitals of atoms overlapping when a covalent bond forms space-filling
A neutral group of atoms that are joined together by one or more covalent bonds molecule
In a covalent bond, the atoms are held together by the _________ between the shared electrons and the protons in each nucleus attractions
Elements at the _________ of a group have a greater attraction for elements than elements at the _________ of the group top bottom
Covalent bond in which electrons are NOT shared equally polar covalent bond
When atoms from a polar covalent bond, the atom with the greater attraction for electrons has a partial _________ charge negative
Factors that determine whether a molecule is a polar or nonpolar the type of atoms the shape of the molecule
Example of a polar molecule water
In a water molecule, the hydrogen has a partial _________ charge, and the oxygen has a partial _________ charge positive δ+ negative δ-
Attractions between polar molecules are _________ than attractions between nonpolar molecules stronger
When a metal forms more than one ion, the name of the ion contains a Roman numeral to indicate the _________ on the ion charge
Because all compounds are neutral, the total charges on the cations and anions in the formula of a ionic compound must add up to _________ zero
The most _________ element appears first in the name (farthest to the left) metallic
In covalent compounds, _________ are used to name the number atoms in molecular compounds prefix
The prefix _________ is not used for the first element mono
A covalently bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and acts as a unit polyatomic bond
The attraction between a metal cation and the cation and the shared electrons that surround it metallic bond
The more valence electrons a metal has, the stronger its _________ bonds will be metallic
Properties of metals that can be explained by metallic bonding malleability conductivity
some of the properties of metals can be explained by the _________ of the electrons within a metal lattice mobility
A mixture of 2 or more elements, at least one is a metal alloy
Properties of Covalent Bonds Many are flexible. Good insulators, poor conductors They don’t dissolve in water easily
Example of a lattice structure that is VERY tough. diamond
Covalent bond between two of the same element diatomic
Covalent bond sharing ONE pair of electrons single bond
Covalent bond sharing TWO pair of electrons double bond
Covalent bond sharing THREE pair of electrons triple bond
Created by: anvalencia