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# Term 2 Vocab

### Extra Credit

TermDefinition
Momentum A quantity defined as the product of the mass and velocity of an object
Impulse The product of force and time over which a force acts
Impulse-Momentum Theorem F= change in momentum divided by change in time
Law of Conservation Momentum The total momentum of all objects interacting with one another remains constant regardless of the nature of the forces between the objects
Inelastic Collision A collision in which two objects stick together completely after colliding
Elastic Collision A collision in which the total momentum and Kinetic Energy are conserved
Rotational Motion Movement in a circle or spinning
Angle A shape formed between two lines coming from a single point
Arc Length The measured distance that an arc makes up between two points
Radius Distance from the center of a circle to the outside edge
Radian The angle formed when an arc length is equal to the radius of a circle
Revolution A full journey around a fixed point
Degree A unit of measurement for angles
Linear Displacement The distance that has been traveled
Angular Displacement A change in angles
Linear Speed Average velocity equals change in distance divided by change in time
Tangential Speed Average angular speed equals change in angle divided by change in time
Angular Speed The rate at which an object moves through an angle
Linear Acceleration Change in velocity over change in time
Tangential Acceleration Change in angular speed divided by change in time
Angular Acceleration The rate of change in angular speed
Rotational Kinematics Applying kinematics equations to rotational problems
Centripetal Force The net force acting toward the center of a circle keeping an object moving in a circular path
Centrifugal Force The imaginary outward force felt by observers moving in a circular path
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation F=Gm1m2 divided by r squared
Universal Gravitational Constant 6.67 x 10 to the -11
Orbital Velocity The minimal velocity an object needs to maintain an orbit
Escape Velocity The minimal velocity needed to escape orbit
Black Hole Formed when the escape speed of a star exceeds the speed of light
Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion 1: Each planet travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun with the sun at one of the focal points 2: An imaginary line drawn from the sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals 3: The square of a planet's orbital period is equal
Center of Gravity Point at which the mass of a body can be considered to be concentrated when analyzing translational motion
Torque A quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object some axis
Lever Arm r(sin angle) or d(sin angle)
Net Torque All of the torque acting on an object added together
Rotational Equilibrium When the net torque equals zero
Moment of Inertia The minimum amount of torque needed to increase the rotational acceleration of an object
Newton's 2nd Law Applied to Rotation External torque equals moment of inertia times angular acceleration
Angular Momentum The product of the moment of inertia and the angular velocity
Conservation of Angular Momentum The angular momentum stays the same in direction and magnitude
Translational Kinetic Energy Is equal to half the mass times to the square root of the speed
Rotational Kinetic Energy Is equal to half the moment of inertia times the square of the angular velocity
Fluid Substance that has no definite shape
Mass density Equal to mass divided by volume of an object
Buoyant force The upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an object
Positively buoyant When an object's buoyant force is strong enough to make it float and the liquid's density is less than the object's
Negatively buoyant When an object's buoyant force is weak enough to make it sink and the object's density is greater than the fluid's
Neutrally buoyant When an object's density is equal to the fluid's density
Pressure The continuous physical pressure exerted on an object by something in contact with it
Ideal fluid The upward buoyant force that is acting on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid that the object displaces
Archimedes' principle An object completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences an upward buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Pascal's principle Pressure placed anywhere in a fluid is transmitted equally in all directions through the fluid so that the pressure variations stay the same
Turbulent flow A flow with chaotic property changes
Flow rate The volume of fluid that passes per unit time
Bernoulli's principle An increase in the speed of a fluid at the same time as a decrease in pressure
Ideal gas law The equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas
Temperature The degree of heat in an object or substance
Internal energy The energy inside of a system
Thermal equilibrium When two objects are touching and do not exchange heat
Heat A form of energy that is a form of energy which transfers among particles of a substance through the kinetic energy
Specific heat capacity The amount of heat needed to changed an object's temperature by one unit
Calorimetry The science of measuring changes in energy of an object by measuring the heat exchanged with the surroundings
Phase change The transformation of an object into another state because of a transfer of heat
Latent heat Energy that is released or absorbed during a constant-temperature process
System A set of interacting parts that make up a complex whole
Environment The surrounding conditions
Isovolumetric Process Volume remains constant
Isothermal process The temperature does not change during expansion or compression
Cyclic process The system starts and returns to the same thermodynamic state
Entropy Measure of the number of specific realizations or microstate
First law of thermodynamics Energy can be changed from one form to another but it cannot be created or destroyed
Second law of thermodynamics The state of entropy increases over time
Hooke's Law F=-kx
Equilibrium position A state of rest in which there is no resultant force on the object
Force constant Force divided by displacement
Simple Harmonic Motion Vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium
Restoring Force The force that brings the system back to equilibrium
Amplitude The maximum displacement from equilibrium
Frequency The number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time
Wave An oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy through a medium
Medium Physical environment that through which a disturbance can be traveled
Mechanical Wave A wave that requires a medium through which to travel
Pulse Wave A wave that consists of a single traveling pulse
Transverse Wave A wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the waves are traveling
Crest The highest point of the wave
Trough The lowest point of the wave
Wavelength The distance between the highest point of a wave to the next
Longitudinal Wave A wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling
Compressional Wave A shock wave that compresses the medium it is passing through
Compression When particles in a wave are close together and not spread out
Rarefraction When particles are spread out and not close together
Interference A phenomenon where two waves interact to form a wave that is greater, less than, or equal to the original
Destructive Interference When two waves form a smaller wave
Reflection The change in direction of an electromagnetic wave at a surface that causes it to move away form the surface
Standing Wave A wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere
Node A point in a standing wave that maintains zero displacement
Antinode A point in a standing wave, halfway between two nodes, at which the largest displacement happens
Infrasonic Wave Sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hertz
Ultrasonic Wave Sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 Hertz
Pitch A measure of how high or low a sound is perceived to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave
Wave Fronts Imaginary surface representing corresponding points of a wave that vibrate in unison
Doppler Effect An observed change in frequency when there is relative motion between the source of waves and an observer
Intensity The rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave motion
Threshold of Hearing 0 decibel
Threshold of Pain 120 decibel
Decibel A unit used to express sound intensity
Resonance The reinforcement or prolongation of sound waves by reflection from a surface or by the synchronous vibrating of an object
Fundamental Frequency The lowest frequency of a periodic waveform
Harmonic Series The wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string are 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, etc. of the string's fundamental wavelength
Timbre The quality of a musical sound or voice as how it is different from its intensity or pitch
Beat An interference pattern between two sounds of slightly different frequencies
Reverberation The persistence of a sound after its source has stopped
Electromagnetic Wave A wave consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, which radiate outward from the source
Luminous Flux Rate at which light is emitted from a source
Illuminance Luminous flux divided by surface area
Virtual Image An image from which light rays appear to diverge, even though they are not actually focused there
Concave Spherical Mirror A mirror whose reflecting surface is a segment of the inside of a sphere
Real Image An image that is formed by the intersection of light rays
Paraxial Rays Light rays that are very near the principle axis of the mirror and are used in ray diagrams, Rays further from the axis don't necessarily intersect after reflecting from a concave mirror
Convex Spherical Mirror A mirror whose reflecting surface is an outward curved segment of a sphere
Three Primary Pigment Magenta, cyan, and yellow
Three Primary Color Red, green, and blue
Linear Polarization The alignment of electromagnetic waves in such a way that the vibrations of the electric fields in each of the waves are parallel to each other
Refraction The binding if a wave front as the wave front passes between two substances in which the speed of the wave differs
Index of Refraction The ratio of speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a given transparent medium
Snell's Law n1sinO1=n2sinO2
Lens A transparent object that refracts light rays
Converging Lens Thick in the middle and thin at the edges
Diverging Lens Thin in the middle and thick at the edges
Total Internal Reflection The complete reflection that takes place within a substance when the angle of incidence of light striking the surface boundary is greater than the critical angle
Critical Angle The angle of incidence at which the refracted light makes an angle of 90 degrees with the normal
Created by: KelseyK1617

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