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Advanced Higher

Unit 2 - Sex and Behaviour

Do females or males show the greater parental investment? Females
Explain why females have a greater energy expenditure Eggs are costly to produce; greater parental care in terms of nest building etc
State the two types of parental investment R-selected and K-selected
State the problem of sex for sessile organisms Sessile organisms are unable to move
State the solutions of sex for sessile organisms Being self-fertile; synchronised spawning; use of other organisms to carry gametes
When parental investment is costly this increases the chance of Production and survival of young
Define a K-selected species Species has a decreased quantity of offspring with a corresponding increase in parental investment
Define a R-selected species Species has an increased quantity of offspring with a corresponding decrease in parental investment
Compare the size of offspring in K-selected and R-selected species K-selected have large offspring and R-selected have small offspring
Compare the quantity of offspring in K-selected and R-selected species K-selected have a low quantity of offspring while while R-selected have a high quantity of offspring
Which type of parental investment prefers quantity over quality in offspring R-selected
Which type of parental investment prefers quality over quantity in offspring K-selected
What is the definition of polygamy Mating with more than one partner in a reproductive season
What is the definition of monogamy Mating with only one partner
What is the advantage of internal fertilisation Allows female choice; less gametes are required as chance of success is high
What is the disadvantage of internal fertilisation Risk of parasitic disease
What is the advantage of external fertilisation No increased risk of parasitic infection
What is the disadvantage of external fertilisation More gametes are required as chance of success is low; no female choice
State the term used to indicate the different body forms of males and females belonging to this species. Sexual dimorphism
State the term for species in which the female is larger or more brightly coloured Reversed sexual dimorphism
Why is it important for females in many species to be inconspicuous Harder for predators to see them OR survival chances of their young increases
Is sexual selection a random or non-random process Non-random
State how females assess male fitness Honest signals
Honest signals can indicate Good genes and low parasite burden
Give three examples of honest signals Roaring; dancing; squandering resources
Why do females get to choose during sexual selection As they invest a lot more energy in egg production than males do in sperm production
Give examples of ways males are conspicuous colourful; large in size; behaviours such as dancing
Why do males have to display elaborate courtship behaviours non random evolution that increases reproductive success through female choice
Which male features would increase their access to females through male-male rivalry Large size; weaponry
Explain what is meant by a lekking species Males gather and compete in communal area (lek) and this allows females choice to occur
In lekking species, alternative successful strategies of dominant and satellite males. State the strategies for dominant and satellite males Dominant: male-male rivalry Satellite: sneakers
Define a sneaker male Sneakers can become inconspicuous by resembling a female in order to avoid male-male rivalry
What is a sign-stimulus A feature from an animals environment that causes a particular response
What is a fixed action pattern (FAP) response An instinctive behavioural response triggered by a sign stimulus
What is imprinting Irreversible developmental processes that occur during a critical time period in young birds may influence mate choice later in life.
State one function of male displays To attract females/let female select the 'best' male
Male birds use singing to court females, why is this regarded as sexual selection? It is subject to female choice, increasing chance of mating with female
Created by: StNiniansHS