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Advanced Higher

Unit 2 - Evolution

What is the definition for evolution? Evolution is the change over time in the proportion of individuals in a population differing in one or more inherited traits.
What are the two non-random processes that can cause evolution to occur. Natural selection and sexual selection
Which non-random process increases the frequency of alleles that increase reproductive chances? Sexual selection
Which non-random process increases the frequency of alleles that makes survival more likely? Natural selection
Is genetic drift random or non-random? Random
Genetic drift has a greater effect on ________________? and why? Small populations, as alleles are more likely to be lost from the gene pool.
What is absolute fitness? The ratio of frequencies of a particular genotypes from one generation to the next.
What is relative fitness? The ratio of surviving offspring of one genotype compared with other genotypes.
What are the three different forms of mutation that cause novel alleles? Neutral, harmful, beneficial
Which factors can affect the rate of evolution? Horizontal gene transfer, warmer environments, shorter generation times, sharing of beneficial DNA sequences through sexual reproduction.
Give an example of two species that co evolve. Herbivores and plants; pollinators and plants; predators and their prey; parasites and their hosts.
Variation in traits arises as a result of? Mutations
Define natural selection. Increased selection pressure for favourable alleles that can survive and reproduce.
Which types of mutation are more likely to occur? Neutral and harmful
Explain the term Co-evolution Occurs in organisms that interact frequently. They are interdependent on one another
Explain what is meant by an evolutionary arms race One species increases selection pressure for competitor to evolve
Explain the Red Queen hypothesis Occurs in organisms that interact frequently. A change in a particular trait acts as a selection pressure on the other species.
Created by: StNiniansHS