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Chemistry 1 (Chapters 9,11,12,15,16) Mr. Benzing

Mole ratio The ratio of moles of one substance to moles of another in a balanced chemical equation
One mole 6.022 x 10^(23) units
Stoichiometry Stoichiometry is used to determine the amount of products/reactants that are produced/needed in a given reaction
Limiting reactant (limiting reagent) The reactant that is completely used up when a reaction is run to completion
Theoretical yield The maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely consumed
Percent yield The actual yield of a product as the percentage of the theoretical yield. (actual yield) / (theoretical yield) x 100 = percent yield
Wavelength The distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
Frequency The number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given point in space
Photon A particle of EM radiation
Electromagnetic (EM) radiation Radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum
Quantized Certain and discrete
Orbital The three-dimensional region in which there is a high probability of finding an electron in an atom
Pauli exclusion principle In a given atom, no two electrons can occupy the same atomic orbital and have the same spin
Electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in an atom
Valence electron The electron in the outermost principal energy level of an atom
Core electron An inner electron; an electron not in the outermost principal energy level of an atom
Ionization energy The amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
Bond (chemical bond) The force that holds two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit
Bond energy The energy required to break a given chemical bond
Ionic bonding The attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionic compound A compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions
Covalent bonding A type of bonding in which atoms share electrons
Polar covalent bond A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts the shared electrons more than the other atom
Electronegativity The tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
Dipole moment A property of a molecule in which the charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
Lewis structure A representation of a molecule or polyatomic ion showing how valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule or ion
Bonding pair A pair of electrons that are shared between two atoms forming a covalent or polar-covalent bond
Lone pair (unshared pair) Electron pairs in a Lewis structure that are not involved in bonding
Resonance A condition occurring when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule
Molecular structure (geometric structure) The three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a molecule
Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VESPER) model A model used to predict molecular geometry based on the idea that the atoms are positioned to minimize repulsion
Solution A homogeneous mixture
Solvent The dissolving medium in a solution
Solute The substance dissolved in the in the solvent to make a solution
Aqueous solution A solution with water as a solvent
Saturated A solution that contains as much solute as will dissolve at that temperature
Unsaturated A solution in which more solute can be dissolved at that temperature
Supersaturated A solution that contains more solute than can be dissolved at that temperature
Concentrated A solution in which a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Dilute A solution in which a relatively small amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Standard solution A solution in which the concentration is accurately known
Dilution The process of adding solvent to a solution to lower the concentration of solute
Neutralization reaction An acid-base reaction
Equivalent of an acid The amount of acid that can furnish one mole of hydrogen ions (H+)
Equivalent of a base The amount of base that can furnish one mole of hydroxide ions (HO-)
Equivalent weight The mass (in grams) of one equivalent of an acid or a base
Colligative property A property that is dependent only on the number of solute particles present in solution
Bronsted-Lowry Acid Proton donor
Bronsted-Lowry Base Proton receiver
Arrhenius Acid Produces H+ in solution
Arrhenius Base Produces OH- in solution
Conjugate acid Substance that is formed when a proton is added to a base
Conjugate base Substance that is formed when a proton leaves a base
Strong acid An acid that completely dissociates to produce H+ ions in solution
Weak acid An acid that dissociates to a slight extent in aqueous solution
Amphoteric substance A substance that can behave as an acid or base
Diprotic acid An acid that can furnish two protons
Oxyacid An acid in which the acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom
Organic acid An acid with a carbon-atom backbone and a carboxyl group
pH meter A device used to measure the pH of a solution
pH scale A logarithmic scale used to express the acidity or basicity of a solution
Titration A technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
Buret A device used for the accurate measurement of the delivery of a given volume of a liquid or solution
Equivalence (stoichiometric) point The point in titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution that is being titrated
Titration curve (pH curve) A plot of pH of solution versus volume of titrant added to a given solution
Buffered solution A solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or a base are added
Created by: 19sangar