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Chemistry SG

Chemistry The scientific study of the structure, composition, and properties of matter
Matter Stuff
Mass A measure of the amount of matter in an object
Scientific Method A series of steps followed to solve problems
Independent Variable What you change in an experiment
Dependent Variable What you measure in an experiment
Control Will not get changed; for comparison
Sig. Digs. All the digits you are certain of and the first one you approximate
Density The ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance (D=M/V)
Accuracy How close you are to the accepted value (hit the mark)
Precision Agreement between measurements made in the same way (about the same way every time)
Percent Error A value that's calculated by solving: (exp. value - acpt. value/acpt. value)100
Substance A sample of matter that has definite chemical and physical properties
Element A substance that can't be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
Compound Element + element = compound
Solution A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Heterogeneous Not the same throughout
Homogeneous Same throughout
Extensive Property A property that depends on the extent or size of a system
Intensive Property A property that doesn't depend on the amount of matter present
Chemical Property How one thing reacts in the presence of something else
Physical Property Depends on that thing
Chemical Change New material, change in one or more physical properties
Physical Change No new material, changed in one or more physical properties
Law of Conservation of Mass Mass can't be created or destroyed; can go from one form to another
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy can't be created or destroyed; can go from one form to the other
Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy The sum of all mass and energy is constant (in nuclear experiments)
Period/Series Elements with the same size; rows on the periodic table
Family/Group Similar properties, reactions, charge; columns on the periodic table
Metal Good conductors of heat and electricity, left of staircase, grey solids at room temperature
Nonmetal Insulators, most are gases, right of staircase
Metalloid Border staircase, not Al; properties of (non)metals
Transition Metals B columns, +2 charge most of the time, Ag +1, Zn +2
Alkali Metals H's column, very reactive, 1A, reactivity goes up as you go down, +1 charge
Alkaline Earth Metals 2A, very reactive, +2 charge
Pnicogens 5A, most charges +5 or -3, but can be anywhere inbetween
Chalcogen 6A, -2 charge
Halogens 7A, most reactive non-metals, -1 charge
Noble Gases 8A, 0 charge, stable
Rare Earth Elements +2, +3 charge, metals
Cation Positively charged ion
Anion Negatively charged ion
Alloy A mixture of two elements, one of them being a metal
Ionic Bond A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges
Oxidation Number The charge of a certain element
Binary Compound A compound composed of two different elements
Ionic Compound Transfer of electrons between metals and nonmetals
Covalent Compound Nonmetals share electrons
Formula Unit An ionic compound in it's simplest and most reduced terms
Molecule A group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces
Oxidation Number The charge of a certain element
Polyatomic Ion An ion made of two or more atoms
Reactant A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
Product A substance that forms in a chemical reaction
Synthesis A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
Decomposition Comp. -> elem./comp. + elem./comp.
Single Displacement Element + compound = new element + new compound; use activity series
Double Displacement Comp. 1+comp. 2= comp. 3+comp. 4
Combustion 02 is a reactant, releases heat, CO2 and H2O are products if organic is a reactant
Activity Series A series of elements that have similar properties
Precipitate A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in a solution
Mole The standard unit for amount
Redox A chemical change in which one species is oxidized and another is reduced; combination of reduction and oxidation
Reducing Agent Causes something to get reduced
Oxidizing Agent Causes something to get oxidized
Oxidation A chemical change in which electrons are lost; charge goes up
Reduction A chemical change in which electrons are gained; charge goes down
Spectator Ions Ions that cancel out and don't take place within the reaction
Molecular Equation A balanced chemical equation where the compounds haven't been broken down yet
Complete Ionic Equation A chemical equation for a reaction which the solubility rules have been applied
Net Ionic Equation An equation that includes only those compounds reacting; eliminate spectator ions
Acid Ionizes in H2O and forms H+ ions, low in pH (<7)
Base High in pH (>7)
Strong Acid An acid that ionizes completely in a solvent
Strong Base A base that breaks apart completely in a solution
Weak Acid An acid that releases few hydrogen ions in aqueous solution
Weak Base A base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution
Polyprotic Acid 2 or more H's
Stoichiometry The relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking part in a reaction or forming a compound
Solute The substance that dissolves in the solvent
Solvent The substance in which the solute dissolves
Avogadro's Number 6.02x10^23, the number of atoms or molecules in 1 mol
Formula Mass The sum of the masses of all elements in a compound; measured in amu's
Molar Mass The mass in grams of one mol of a substance
Average Atomic Mass The weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element
Empirical Formula A chemical formula that shows the composition of a compound in terms of the relative numbers and kinds of atoms in the simplest ratio
Molecular Formula A chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule, but not the arrangement of the atoms
Structural Formula A formula that indicates the location of the atoms, groups, or ions relative to one another in a molecule and that indicates the number and location of chemical bonds
Created by: archergirl