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Chapter 27 Vocab

The Chemistry of Life

QuestionAnswer
photosynthesis process by which a substance undergoes a change that does not alter its identity
cellular respiration series of reactions in which glucose is oxidized to form carbon dioxide, water, and energy
endergonic absorb energy
exergonic release energy
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores chemical energy in its phosphate bonds
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) absorbs chemical energy from broken phosphate bonds
monomer small molecule that joins with other similar molecules to make a polymer
polymer large organic molecule consisting of small repeating units called monomers
carbohydrate organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio; human body's main source of energy
monosaccharide monomer of a carbohydrate; simple sugar
disaccharide compound composed of two monosaccharides; double sugar
polysaccharide polymer formed when three or more monosaccharides join together; complex carbohydrate
dehydration synthesis process by which two molecules are joined by removing a molecule of water
hydrolysis reaction in which water is added to a reactant, breaking the reactant into two product molecules
glucose the carbohydrate produced in photosynthesis
fructose a hexose sugar
galactose a sugar of the hexose class that is a component of lactose and polysaccharides
sucrose a disaccharide containing glucose and fructose units
lactose a disaccharide containing glucose and galactose units
starch a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important component of the human diet
glycogen a polysaccharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis
cellulose a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers; an insoluble substance that is the main component of plant cell walls and vegetable fibers
lipid organic compound with oily or waxy properties; molecules composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen that are insoluble in water
oils triglycerides that are solid at room temperature and that contains mainly unsaturated fatty acids
fats triglycerides that are solid at room temperature and that contains mainly saturated fatty acids
triglyceride ester of glycerol and three fatty acids; general term for fats and oils
fatty acid a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxylic group
glycerol a trihydric alcohol used especially for explosives
cellulose a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers; an insoluble substance that is the main component of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers
lipid organic compound with oily or waxy properties
oil triglyceride that is liquid at room temperature and that contains mainly unsaturated fatty acids
fat triglyceride that is solid at room temperature and that contains mainly saturated fatty acids
triglyceride ester of glycerol and three fatty acids; general term for fats and oils
fatty acid a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrogen chain and a terminal carboxylic group, especially consisting in fats and oils
glycerol a trihydric alcohol; used especially for explosives
saturated lipid fat
unsaturated lipid oil
hydrogenation addition of a hydrogen molecule to a double or triple bond
phospholipid lipid made up of an alcohol, fatty acids, and a phosphate group that forms cell membranes
steroid any of a large class of organic compounds with a characteristic molecular structure of four rings of carbon atoms
cholesterol the most important steroid in animals that is synthesized by animals but not by plants
sex hormone a hormone affecting sexual development or reproduction
protein a polymer made of hundreds of amino acid monomers
hair, muscle, and connective tissue structural proteins
enzyme a biological catalyst
hemoglobin quaternary protein structure
amino acid occur naturally in plant and animal tissues and are the basic component of proteins
Created by: mlawrence