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Chapter 2-Chemical

Chemical Level of Organization

Structure of an atom Protons, neutrons & electrons
Protons positively charged particles
Neutrons neutral charged particle
Atomic Number number of protons in the nucleus
Mass Number Protons + neutrons
Isotopes The # of protons is the same, but with different number of neutrons
If an atom loses 1 or more electrons, it's ... postively charged
If an electron gains one or more electrons, it's .... negatively charged
If an atom gives up or gains an electron, is called... an ION
atoms are joined by.... chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds = ENERGY. Atoms of a compound are hel together by forces of attraction
3 types of chemical bonds are... ionic, covalent and hydrogen
Ionic Bonds * COMPLETELY lose/gain electrons *cations-postively charged, ELECTRON DONORS *anions-negatively charged, ELECTRON ACCEPTORS. Compounds dissolve easily
Covalent Bonds *equally share electrons *can single, double or triple bonded
Polar Bonds UNEQUAL SHARING, one electron attracts the other more strongly
Non-polar Bonds EQUAL SHARING of electrons
Water *most abundant INORGANIC compound, *are POLAR (unequally shared electrons), *
ACIDS *are electron DONORS, *H+ and anion (negative atoms), *produces hydrogen on its own, *releases H+ ions
BASES *are electron ACCEPTORS, *are a group of atoms with hydrogen and oxygen and steal an electron, *NaOH=Na+ + OH
pH *a measure of acidity, *0-6.9999 = acidic, *7-14 = base
Buffers * minimize a pH change via negative-feedback systems
Inorganic Compounds * NO CARBON, * are simple molecules
Organic Compounds * contain CARBON, * ALWAYS have covalent bonds, *are either POLAR or NON-POLAR, * DO NOT DISSOLVE EASILY IN WATER, * useful materials for building structures, * good source of energy EXAMPLES: proteins, carbohydrates and fats
Carbohydrates * contain Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen, *Functions: to provide energy, break down fatty acids, regulates glucose and cell recognition, *provides needed energy for life in humans in the form of glycogen, * builds structures and generates ATP
Monosaccharides *one sugar, * made from a 6-carbon structure ring, * glucose, fructose and galactose are monosaccharides
Disaccharides *any 2 monosaccharides, *ex.-maltose, lactose & sucrose
Polysaccharides *tens to hundreds of monosaccharides, * contain glucose & starch, * stored in the liver & skeltal muscles (reason why you go w/o eating for a long period of time)
Lipids *contain Hydrogen, Oxygen & some carbon, *DO NOT DISSOLVE EASILY IN WATER (non-polar bonds), *fluidity depends on structure of fatty acid chains & temperture
Triglycerides, phospholipids & steroids are all..... *******LIPIDS*******
Triglycerides *most plentiful lipid, * provides protection, insulation & energy, *composed of 1 glycerol head & 3 fatty acid chains, * FUNCTIONS: around heart, kidneys, under skin & long term storage
saturated fats *single covalent bond (single bond between the carbons
unsaturated fats * double bonds, *this is best for humans, *is a liquid such as oil
Phospholipids *are amphipathic (loves/hates water), **contains a charged PHOSPHATE group, * important cell membrane component, *the polar head contains phosphates & acid chain, *polar head LOVES water, acid chain HATES water
Steroids *made from cholesterol, ALL STEROIDS BEGIN WITH CHOLESTEROL, * 4 rings of carbon, * contained in sex hormones, bile salts & CHOLESTEROL
Eicosanoids * MODIFY RESPONSES TO HORMONES, * contribute to inflammatory responses, * is UNSATURATED, *is NOT produced by the body, *function: changes how fluids clot, swelling & ulcers
Leukotrienes *fatty acids, *fat-soluable vitamins such as A, D, E &K
Proteins *from amino acids, *amino acids contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen & NITROGEN, * SIDE CHAINS MAKE PROTEINS UNIQUE, Functions: structure to body, regulates processes, provides protection, helps muscles contract & transports substances & ACTS AS AN ENZYME
Peptide Bonds *covalent bond between 2 amino acids, *form structural levels of organization, * amino acids join together in a step-wise fashion w/each covalent carbon-to-nitrogen bond joining amino acids
Enzymes *make something happen faster, * catalysts in living cells, * usually end in -ase, *BREAKS DOWN SUBSTANCES
Nucleic Acids *huge organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen & phosphates, *distinguishes it from all others due to the PHOSPHATES, *DNA-regulates most activity that takes place in cells, *RNA-copies DNA, & relays instructions
A T P *principle ENERGY CURRENCY,Function: muscle contractions, chromosome movement, membrane transport processes, combines things together, cytoplasmic movement, *consists of 3 phosphates attached to an adenosine unit made of adenine & ribose
Created by: Denice