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Science fin. concept

How are atoms elements and compounds related? Compounds are made of two or more elements. Elements are made of two or more atoms.
Describe the parts of an atom and how they are arranged. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons. The electrons are arranged around the nucleus in shells.
How is the periodic table organized? The rows across are called periods. Each period has the same number of orbits for electrons. The columns up and down are called groups. Each element in each group has the same number of valence electrons.
How to read the periodic table. See Slides
How are elements in the same group the same? Same number of valence electrons.
Why is hydrogen special? Sometimes it is missing an electron and sometimes it has an extra one. It shows group 1 and group 7.
How do covalent bonds form? They form between atoms that share their valence electrons. They share to fill up their outer shell.
What are single, triple and double covalent bonds? Double and triple are stronger than single.Single shares 2 electrons. Double share 4 electrons and triple shares 6
What are polar and non polar bonds? Polar bonds share electrons unequally....non polar shares them equally
Give an example of a physical change. form, appearance....Squishing a marshmellow
Give an example of a chemical change. new substances are made......burning of gas in a car engine
What are the parts of a chemical reaction? Reactants, yield, products
What are the three types of chemical reactions? synthesis, decomposition, replacement
What are the parts of the fire triangle? Fuel, oxygen and heat
How do solutions affect freezing and boiling points? They lower the freezing point and raise the boiling points.
Explain the ph scale. It ranges from 0 to 14. The lower the number, the more acidic. The higher the number the more basal.
Describe acids. taste sour, react with metal and carbonates, blue paper turns red
Describe bases. taste bitter, slippery, red paper turns blue
What was the contribution of Robert Hooke? He used a microscope with a cork and saw the different cells. He found out that all living things are made of cells and cells only come from other cells.
Three rules of the cell thesuory. 1. cells are the basic unit of structure 2. all living things are made of cells 3. cells only come from other cells
Function of cell wall supports and protects the cell
function of cell membrane protects the cell and is selectively permeable....controls what goes in and out of the cell
function of cytoplasm jelly like fluid that fills the cell....helps the cell structure
function of nucleus controls the cell's functions
function of mitochondria produce energy for the cell
function of ribosomes produce proteins
What is the difference between plant and animal cells? Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts. Animal cells don't.
What are proteins made up of? Amino acids
What are the nitrogen bases for DNA and RNA? adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Why is water important for the cell? It transports essential molecules around the body. Needed for osmosis in the cell.
What is the equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2+6H2O..........food and energy.........C6H12O6+6O2 carbon dioxide +water...........sugar and oxygen
What is respiration? Energy release
What is the equation for respiration? C6H12O6+6O2............6CO2+6H2O+energy Sugar+Oxygen........carbon dioxide+water+energy
Created by: yttims