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Science final vocab

Science final

matter anything that has mass and takes up space
element a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by chemical or physical means
atom smallest particle of an element
molecule a neutral particle made of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
compound a substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a specific ratio or proportion
mixture two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically combined
electron negatively charged particles that move around outside the nucleus of an atom
proton small, positively charged particles that are found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron small, uncharged particles that are found in the nucleus of an atom
nucleus the central core of the atom, containing protons and usually neutrons
valence electrons the electrons that are in the highest energy level of an atom and that are involved in chemical reactions
chemical bond the force that holds atoms together
chemical symbol one or two letter set of characters that is used to identify and element
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
period elements in the same horizontal row of the periodic table
group or family elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table
ion an atom or group of atoms that has become electrically charged
ionic bond the attraction between oppositely charged ions
chemical formula a combination of symbols that represents the elements in a compound
subscript a number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a model
covalent bond chemical bond formed when 2 atoms share electrons
polar bond covalent bond where electrons are shared unequally
alloy material made of 2 or more elements that has all the properties of a metal
ductile therm used to describe material that can be bent without breaking; flexible
malleable material that can be hammered or rolled into shape
physical property characteristic that can be observed without changing the composition of the matter
chemical property characteristics of a substance that describe its ability to change into a different substance
physical change change that alters appearance of a substance but doesn't change its makeup
chemical reaction when substances undergo chemical changes that result in the formation of new substances
endothermic reaction reaction that absorbs energy in the format of heat
exothermic reaction reaction that releases heat in the form of energy
chemical equation short easy way to show a chemical reaction using symbols
reactant substance that enters a chemical reaction
product substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
conservation of mass principle stating that matter can not be created or destroyed
coefficient number in front of a chemical formula/ indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant or product
synthesis chemical reaction which two or more simple substances combine from a new substance
decomposition chemical reaction that breaks down compounds into simpler products
replacement reaction where an element replaces another element
activation energy minimum amount of energy needed to get a chemical reaction started
concentration amount of one material in a certain volume of another material
catalyst material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering activation energy
enzyme inhibitor biological catalyst that lowers activation energy
solution well mixed mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughout
solvent the part of a solution that is present in the largest amount and dissolves a solute
solute the part of a solution present in a lesser amount and dissolved by the solvent
suspension a mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration
dilute solution a mixture that has only a little solute dissolved in it
concentrated solution a mixture that has a lot of solute dissolved in it
solubility a measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature
saturated solution a mixture that contains as much dissolved solute as is possible at a given temperature
unsaturated solution a mixture that contains less dissolved solute than is possible at a given temperature
supersaturated solution a mixture that has more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at a given temperature
cell the basic unit of structure and function in living things
cell theory a widely acecpted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
organelle a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
cell wall a rigid layer of non living material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
cell membrane a cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell
nucleus cell structure that contains nucleic acids, chemical instructions that direct all the cell's activities
cytoplasm the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus. In organisms without a nucleus, the region located in the cell membrane
motochondria rod shaped cell structures that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its function
ribosome a small grain like structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made
chloroplast a structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food
carbohydrate energy rich organic compound, such as sugar or starch that is made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipid energy rich organic compound, such as a fat or wax, that is made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
protein large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sometimes sulfur
amino acid small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins
enzyme type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
nucleic acid large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, contains the instructions cells need to carry out all functions of life
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
RNA ribonucleic acid, important role in producing proteins
diffusion process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
osmosis diffusion of water molecules through permeable membranes
passive transport movement of materials through a membrane without using energy
active transport movement of materials through a membrane using energy
photosynthesis process by which plants and some other organisms capture the energy in sunlight to make food
Created by: yttims