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Physics Unit 9

Light

TermDefinition
electromagnetic wave an energy-carrying wave emitted by a vibrating charge that is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that regenerate one another
electromagnetic spectrum the range of electromagnetic waves extending in frequency from radio waves to gamma rays
transparent the property of materials to pass light in straight lines without being scattered
opaque the property of materials not to allow passage of light
shadow a shaded region that appears where light rays are blocked by an object
umbra the darker part of a shadow where all the light is blocked
penumbra a partial shadow that appears where some but not all light is blocked
solar eclipse an event in which the moon blocks light from the sun
lunar eclipse an event in which the moon passes into the shadow of the earth
additive primary colors red, blue, and green; when added in proportions, these 3 colors produce any other color in the spectrum; produce white when mixed equally
complementary colors any two colors of equal brightness that, when added, produce white light
subtractive primary colors magenta, yellow, cyan; when mixed in certain proportions, these 3 colors can reflect any other color in the spectrum
reflection the return of light rays from a surface
Fermat's Principle of Least Time light takes the path that requires the least time when it goes from one place to another
Law of Reflection the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence
refraction the bending of an oblique ray of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another
critical angle the minimum angle of incidence inside a medium at which a light ray is totally reflected
total internal reflection the total reflection of light traveling within a denser medium when it strikes the boundary with a less dense medium at an angle larger than the critical angle
converging lens a lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edges and that refracts parallel rays to a focus
diverging lens a lens that is thinner in the middle than at the edges, causing parallel rays to diverge as if from a point
virtual image an image formed by light rays that do not converge at the location of the image; cannot be displayed on a screen
real image an image formed by light rays that converge at the location of the image; can be displayed on a screen
aberration distortion in an image produced by a lens, which to some degree is present in all optical systems
Created by: ginaliane