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Physics Unit 8

Electricity & Magnetism

TermDefinition
electricity a general term for electrical phenomena
electrostatics the study of electric charge at rest
Conservation of Charge electric charge is neither created or destroyed; the total charge before an interactions equals the total charge after
Coulomb's Law the relationship among electrical force, charge, & distance; opposites attract, likes repel
coulomb the SI unit of electric charge
conductor any material that has free charged particles that easily flow through it when an electrical force acts on them
insulator a material that does not contain free charged particles and through which charge does not easily flow
semiconductor a material with properties that fall between those of a conductor and an insulator and whose resistance can be affected by adding impurities
superconductor a material that is a perfect conductor with zero resistance to the flow of electric charge
charging by contact the transfer of electric charges between objects by rubbing or simple touching
charging by induction the redistribution of electric charges in and on objects caused by the electrical influence of a charged object close by, but not in contact
electrically polarized the term applied to an atom or molecule in which the charges are aligned so that one side has a slight excess of positive charge and the other side a slight excess of negative charge
electric field electrical force per unit of charge; a storehouse of electric energy; operates under the inverse square law
electric potential energy the energy a charged object possesses by virtue of its location in an electric field
electric potential the electric potential energy per unit of charge; measured in volts called voltage
capacitor an electric device that stores electric charge and energy
potential difference the difference in electric potential between two points; measured in volts
electric current the flow of electric charge that transports energy from one place to another; measured in amperes
electrical resistance the property of a material that resists electric current; measured in ohms
Ohm's Law the current in a circuit varies in direct proportion to the potential difference or voltage across the circuit and inversely with the circuit's resistance
direct current (dc) electrically charged particles flowing in one direction only
alternating current (ac) electrically charged particles that repeatedly reverse direction, vibrating about relatively fixed positions
electric power the rate of energy transfer, or the rate of doing work; the amount of energy per unit time; the product of current and voltage
series circuit an electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected along a single loop of wire such that the same current is in each device
parallel circuit an electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected in such a way that the same voltage acts across each one, and any single one completes the circuit independently of all others
magnetic force 1)attraction of unlike magnetic poles and repulsion of like magnetic poles; 2)the deflecting force between a magnetic field and a moving charged particle
magnetic field the region of magnetic influence around a magnetic pole or a moving charged particle
magnetic domains clustered regions of aligned magnetic atoms
electromagnet a magnet whose field is produced by an electric current
cosmic rays high speed particles that travel throughout the universe
electromagnetic conduction the creation of voltage when a magnetic field changes with time; a change in the magnetic field of a closed loop induces a voltage
Faraday's Law the induced voltage in a coil is proportional to the product of its number of loops, the cross-sectional area of each loop, and the rate at which the magnetic field changes within these loops
generator an electromagnetic induction device that produces electric current by rotating a coil within a stationary magnetic field; converts mechanical energy to electric enegy
transformer a device for transferring electric power from one coil of wire to another for the purpose of transforming one value of voltage into another
Maxwell's Counterpart to Faraday's Law a magnetic field is created in any region of space in which an electric field is changing with time
Created by: ginaliane