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2017 Final Review

Review for Chemistry Final Exam

elements are arranged this way on the current periodic table increasing atomic number
atomic mass - atomic number finds this neutrons
number of valence electrons equals this group number
these subatomic particles are found in the nucleus protons + neutrons
these subatomic particles must be equal if atom is neutral protons + electrons
change in number of protons different element
change in number of neutrons isotope
change in number of electrons ion
innermost electrons are called this core
outermost electrons are called this valence
majority of elements on periodic table are this metals
Cations are found where on the periodic table 1A, 2A, 3A (+ d and f blocks)
Anions are found where on the periodic table 5A, 6A, 7A
Type of chemical reaction: AB --> A + B decomposition
Type of chemical reaction: A + B --> A + B combination (synthesis)
Type of chemical reaction: AB + CD --> AD + CB double replacement
Type of chemical reaction: AB + C --> CB + A (sometimes) single replacement
Compound made by a transfer of valence electrons ionic
Compound made by sharing of valence electrons covalent
How are ionic compounds named? criss cross but never use prefixes
How are covalent compounds named? always use prefixes but never "mono" on 1st anion
Means sharing 6 valence electrons triple covalent
Means sharing 4 valence electrons double covalent
Means sharing just 2 valence electrons single covalent
unequal sharing of valence electrons polar covalent
equal sharing of valence electrons non-polar covalent
most electronegative element + its trend F (up and right)
element with largest atomic size + its trend Fr (down and left)
atomic mass is the sum of ________ & __________ protons + neutrons
creates nuclear energy by splitting heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei nuclear fission
creates nuclear energy by combining lighter nuclei into 1 heavy nucleus nuclear fusion
what element is the exception in group 1A (1) H , not a metal
what element is the exception in group 8A (18) He, stable with 2 valence electrons
2 parts of an ionic compound cation (metal) + anion (nonmetal)
2 parts of a covalent compound anion (nonmetal) + anion (nonmetal)
subatomic particle with positive charge proton
subatomic particle with negative charge electron
subatomic particle with no charge neutron
study of matter and the changes it goes through chemistry
conditions kept the same during experiment constants
aka dependent variable responding variable
aka independent variable manipulated variable
group that does not receive the independent variable control
getting close to the expected result (value) accurate
getting the same results repeatedly precise
horizontal rows on the periodic table (7) periods
vertical columns on the periodic table (18) groups/families
numbers that are never significant leading 0's , trailing 0's without decimal
numbers that are always significant nonzero , trapped 0's , trailing 0's with a decimal
SI unit for time seconds (s)
SI unit for length meters (m)
SI unit for mass kilograms (kg)
Rule that says that atoms of elements become stable with 8 valence electrons octet
is conserved in every chemical reaction molar mass + # of atoms
a product of 2 numbers: a coefficient x base of 10 scientific notation
numbers that are never changed to balance a chemical equation subscripts
numbers that are added to balance a chemical equation coefficients
chemical equation that is not balanced skeleton
formula that uses the lowest whole number ratios empirical
charts, tables and/or graphs are made during this part of the scientific method analyze data
elements were arranged this way on the first periodic table increasing atomic mass
last 2 things done after experiment is over clean up + wash hands
part of solution that gets mixed in example: sugar, salt solute
part of solution that does the mixing example: water solvent
a well supported science explanation or summary (can be revised with new info) scientific theory
brief statement of scientific fact (rarely changed) scientific law
proposed answer to a scientific question ; must be testable hypothesis
said that electrons are placed in the lowest energy level first Aufbau
said that electrons must have the SAME spin until each atomic orbital has 1 electron Hund
said that 2 electrons is the max # in an orbitals & will have OPPOSITE spins Pauli
Type of Chemical Reaction: CxHy + O2 --> CO2 + H2O Combustion
reaction that cannot be sped up, slowed down & NOT affected by catalysts nuclear reaction
Gas Law: P1V1 = P2V2 Boyle's
Gas Law: PV = nRT Ideal
Gas Law: P1/ T1 = P2 T2 Gay-Lussac's
Gas Law: V1/ T1 = V2/ T2 Charles's
famous Einstein equation used to find mass to energy equivalence for subatomic particles E = mc^2
used to measure radiation levels Geiger counter , film badge
radiation with lowest energy (blocked by paper) alpha
radiation with highest energy (partially blocked by concrete/lead) gamma
radiation with medium energy (blocked by wood or metal foil) beta
radiation particle emitted (released) by alpha decay Helium atom
radiation particle emitted (released) by beta decay electron
radiation particle emitted (released) by gamma decay photon
time it takes a radioactive sample to decay by 50% half-life
use of isotope C-14 to measure age of old fossils radiocarbon dating
273 K ( or O C) AND 101.3 kPa ( or 1 atm) STP conditions
Non-SI unit for volume Liter
SI unit for amount of substance mole
(6.02 x 10^23 ) # of representative particles Avogadro's number
Volume of 1 mole of any gas at STP conditions 22.4 Liters
Movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration diffusion
Conditions where a real gas will behave ideally low pressure and high temperature
Created by: cadetjt