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Chapter 2

Chpater 2 Vocab

QuestionAnswer
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space.
Physical Property A property of matter that results from the position and characteristics of its particles and that can be measured without causing a change in the identity of the material
Chemical property A property of matter that describes how one substance reacts in the presence of other substances
Physical Change A change that alters the physical properties of a substance but that does not change the substance's identity.
Chemical Change A change in the identity of a material that results in a different material with a different compositions and properties.
Pure substance A substance that is made up of only one kind of particle and has uniform composition
Mixture Two or more pure substances physically combined with no definite proportions that can be separated by physical means
Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture composed of two or more separate phases that have their own properties
Homogeneous mixture A mixture that shows only a single phase with uniform properties throughout
Element A substance whose atoms all have the same atomic number and that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means into anything that is both stable and simpler
Atom A neutral particle with a centrally located nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons with electrons around it.
Ion A charged atom; an atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons, thus producing an imbalance between the number of protons and electrons in the particle
Molecule two or more covalently bonded atoms found as a separate, distinct, independent unit
Chemical Symbol A one, two, or three -letter representation for an element
Compound A substance that consists of atoms of different elements chemically bonded together
Chemical Formula Chemical symbols arranged to represent molecules or formula units that make up compounds
Chemical subscript A number written at the lower right of a chemical symbol, indicating the number of atoms or groups of atoms in a chemical formula
Coefficient A number that appears in front of a chemical formula and indicates how many atoms, ions, molecules, or formula units are present
Energy The ability to do work
Thermodynamics The study of energy transformations in chemical and physical processes
Law of conservation of mass energy The physical law stating that during ordinary physical and chemical processes, mass is neither created nor destroyed, only converted from one form to another
First law of thermodynamics The physical law stating that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be converted form one form to another
Entropy The measure of randomness or lack of orderliness in a system.
Second law of thermodynamics The physical law that applies to natural processes unaffected by outside manipulation by any intelligence and states that during any energy transformation, some energy goes to unusable form
System A portion of the universe under study
Kinetic energy Energy produced from motion
Internal energy The sum of the potential and kinetic energies of an object's component particles
Temperature A measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions in matter
Thermal energy The measure if the total kinetic energy of the molecules or ions in matter
Heat A measurement of the total amount of thermal energy transferred from one substance to another
Exothermic A term describing a process that releases heat energy
Endothermic A term describing a process that absorbs heat energy
Celsius Scale Divides the range from the freezing point of water to the boiling point of water
Kelvin scale Divides the range from the freezing point of water to the boiling point of water.
Absolute zero The theoretical temperature at which all molecular motion ceases
Third law of thermodynamics Physical law stating that it is impossible to reach absolute zero
Joule SI unit of work and energy
Calorie Equivalent to the kilocalorie; used in reference to the energy content of foods
Kinetic Molecular theory A theory stating that the particles of matter are in constant random motion and that the properties of matter are consequences of that motion
Solid State of matter in which the particles have relatively little energy and cannot overcome the attractive forces
Liquids A state of matter in which the particles have enough energy to partially overcome the attractive forces
Gas A state of matter in which the particles have enough energy to overcome the attractive forces
Plasma Most abundant form of matter in the universe, consisting of a gaseous sea of high
Bose Einstein Condensate The state of matter that exists at temperature close to absolute zero
Quark gluon plasma A high-temperature state of matter that forms when nuclei collide with such energy that their protons and neutrons are broken down into a "soup" of elementary particles called quarks and gluons
Condensation Physical change from the gaseous state to the liquid state
Vaporization A physical change from the liquid state to the vapor or gaseous stage.
Freezing Physical change from the liquid state to the solid state
Melting Physical Change from the solid to the liquid state
Sublimation Physical change from the solid directly to the gaseous state
Deposition Physical change directly from a gaseous state to a solid
Created by: LcaStudy