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Chapters 1 & 2 Vocab

Learn vocabulary from Ch. 1 & 2

parameter a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population.
statistic a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample.
quantitative (or numerical) data consists of numbers representing counts or measurements.
categorical (or qualitative or attribute) data consists of names or labels (representing categories).
discrete data result when the number of possible values is either a finite number or a ‘countable’ number
continuous data result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps
nominal level of measurement characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only, and the data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as low to high).; Example: Survey responses yes, no, undecided
ordinal level of measurement involves data that can be arranged in some order, but differences between data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless; Example: Course grades A, B, C, D, or F
interval level of measurement involves data that can be arranged in order and the difference between any two data values is meaningful. However, there is no natural zero starting point (where none of the quantity is present); Example: Years 1000, 2000, 1776, and 1492
ratio level of measurement the interval level with the additional property that there is also a natural zero starting point; for values at this level, differences and ratios are meaningful; Example: Prices of college textbooks
observational study observing and measuring specific characteristics without attempting to modify the subjects being studied.
experiment apply some treatment and then observe its effects on the subjects (subjects in experiments are called experimental units)
simple random sample A sample of n subjects is selected in such a way that every possible sample of the same size n has the same chance of being chosen.
random sample Members from the population are selected in such a way that each individual member in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
randomization used when subjects are assigned to different groups through a process of random selection. The logic is to use chance as a way to create two groups that are similar.
data Collections of observations, such as measurements, genders, or survey responses
statistics The science of planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions based on the data
population The complete collection of all measurements or data that are being considered
sample Subcollection of members selected from a population
frequency distribution shows how a data set is partitioned among all of several categories (or classes) by listing all of the categories along with the number (frequency) of data values in each of them.
center A representative value that indicates where the middle of the data set is located.
variation A measure of the amount that the data values vary.
distribution The nature or shape of the spread of data over the range of values (such as bell-shaped, uniform, or skewed).
outliers Sample values that lie very far away from the vast majority of other sample values.
time Changing characteristics of the data over time.