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unit 2

Matter anything that has mass and volume
Atom the smallest particle of an element that maintains the chemical characteristics of that element
Proton the positive particle in the center of an atom
Neutron the neutral particle in the center of an atom
Electron the negative particle which orbits the center of the atom
valance electrons the outermost layer of electrons which are involved in bonding
Electron Cloud/ Shells/Orbitals the outermost portion of an atom where the electrons are housed
Nucleus the center of the atom composed of neutrons and protons
Element a substance of matter made of only one kind of atom (pure substance)
Period a row of elements on the periodic table whose properties change gradually and predictably
Group/ Family columns on the periodic table which have similar chemical properties (# of valence e-)
atomic number A classifying number of an atom which indicates proton and electron count
Atomic Symbol A shorthand letter symbol used to identify atoms. First letter is always capitalized.
Atomic Weight the average weight of one atom of an element (protons + neutrons), based off of Carbon.
Molecule neutral particle formed when atoms share electrons (can be elemental or compound based)
compound substance that contains 2 or more different elements
chemical bond when two or more atoms are held together by sharing or transferring electrons (stores energy)
Polar Molecule (Polar Bond) a molecule/bond which has 2 charged sides
Non-polar Molecule (Bond) a neutral molecule/bond with no charge
States of Matter matter can change state based on temperature and resulting density of atoms: solid, liquid, gas
Chemical Reaction a reaction in which energy causes a bond to be rearranged, and a new chemical substance is created
Physical Reaction A change to the size or shape of a substance which does not create a new chemical substance
Law of Conservation of Mass matter can neither be created nor destroyed
Exothermic Reaction a chemical reaction which releases heat energy (gets hot)
Endothermic Reaction a chemical reaction which requires energy to begin (gets cold)
Catalyst a chemical which speeds up a reaction
Covalent Bond a bond in which electrons are shared Ionic Bond - a bond in which electrons are transferred/taken
Metallic Bond a bond in which electrons are pooled
mixture a substance in which two or more chemical substances are combined but not bonded chemically
solution a uniform mixture
solute the substance being dissolved
solvent the substance dissolving
boiling point the temperature of the substance where the vapor pressure of the substance is equal to the surrounding air pressure
melting point the temperature at which a substance changes state from solid to liquid at normal atmospheric pressure
solubility the ability of a substance to dissolve in solution
isotope atom with varying amounts of neutrons
ion charged atom, as in an ionic bond
reactant the portion of a chemical reaction that is changing
product what results from a chemical reaction
saturated a solution that has as much solute as possible
super-saturated a solution with MORE than the normal amount of solute possible
Created by: megan_lacivita21



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