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Chemistry 221

Mt. Hood Chemistry course

Metric System: Giga 10 to the 9th power
Metric System: Mega 10 to the 6th power
Metric System: Kilo 10 to the 3rd power
Metric System: Deci 10 to the -1st power
Metric System: Centi 10 to the -2nd power
Metric System: Milli 10 to the -3rd power
Metric System: Micro 10 to the -6th power
Metric System: Nano 10 to the -9th power
Metric System: Pico 10 to the -12th power
Metric System: Femto 10 to the -15th power
American Metric Conversion 2.54cm=1in, 1.06qt=1L, 454g=1LB, 39.37in=1m, 2.21LB=1kg, 1.609km=1mi
American Mass 1LB=16mass oz, 1ton=2000LBs
American Volume 1c=8fl.oz, 1pt=2c, 1qt=2pt, 1gal=4qt
American Length 1ft=12in, 1yd=3ft, 1mi=5280ft
Polyatomic Ions: chlorate ClO3, -1 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: Permanganate MnO4, -1 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: acetate CH3COO, -1 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: hydroxide OH, -1 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: cyanide CN, -1 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: thiocyanide SCN, -1 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: ammonium NH4, +1 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: sulfate SO4, -2 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: carbonate CO3, -2 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: phosphate PO4, -3 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: nitrate NO3, -1 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: chromate CrO4, -2 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: dichromate Cro7, -2 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: oxalate C2O4, -2 Charge
Polyatomic Ions: thiosulfate S2O3, -2 Charge
Element One type of atom only
Atom The smallest representative particle of an element
Matter Anything that has a mass and takes up space (Atom, Element, Compounds, and Molecules)
Chemistry Study of matter and changes it undergoes
Macro Big
Micro Small
Atomic Theory Atoms are the smallest particles of an element
Law of Constant Composition Observation that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same
Law of Conservation Mass Total mass present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass present before the reaction
Law of Multiple Proportions states that when elements combine, they do so in the ratio of small whole numbers
Empirical Formula The formula of a compound showing the simplest ratio of the atoms present (ie. B2F6>BF3)
Compounds contains atoms of two or more chemical elements held together by chemical bonds
Molecules Smallest physical unit of a substance that can exist independently, consisting of one or more atoms held together by chemical forces
States of Matter Gas,Liquid,and Crystalline solid
Homogeneous Completely uniform at macroscopic level (Air)
Mixture Two or more different elements, compounds, and/or states of matter in a container
Heterogeneous Uneven at Macroscopic level (Granite)
Pure Substance Only one pure element or compound (not physically divisible)
Diatomics: hydrogen H2
Diatomics: oxygen O2
Diatomics: nitrogen N2
Diatomics: chlorine Cl2
Diatomics: bromine Br2
Diatomics: iodine I2
Diatomics: flourine F2
Polyatomics: sulfur S8
Polyatomics: phosphorous P4
Matter Chart Heterogeneous Mixture< Homogeneous Matter< Element Pure Substance < Compound
Physical Properties Properties that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of a substance (boiling, melting, color, and conductivity)
Chemical Properties Can only be observes when a substance is changes into another substance (flammability,and reactivity to acid)
Chemical Reactions In the course of a chemical reaction, the reacting substances are converted to new substances
Methods of Seperation: Distilation Uses differences in the BP of substances to seperate homogeneous mixtures into its components
Methods of Seperation: Filtration Solid subtances are seperated from liquids and solutions
Methods of Seperation: Chromatography Seperates subtances on the basis of the differences in solubity in a solvent and attraction to the chromatography paper
Qualitative Information Non-numerical experimental observations (Descriptions)
Quantitative Information Numerical experimental data (measurements in mass or volume)
Celsius 0-100*C *C=(5/9)(F-32)
Kelvin 273-373K K=C+273.15
Fahrenheit 32-212*F *F=(9/5)(*C)+32
Density Ratio of mass of object to it volume D=(M/V)
Specific Gravity Density of Liquid/Density of Water (the density without units)
Temperature Is a measure of kinetic energy
Significant Figures -All non zero digits are sig-figs -0 between numbers are sig-figs -0 before number not sig-figs -0 before and after decimals are sig-figs -ignore 1 in conversions
Scientific Method (Thought Process) Observation & Experiments> >Finding patterns trends and laws> >Formulate & test hypthesis> >Theory
Coulombs Law F=((kQ1Q2)/D2) Q=magnitude of the ion charge D=distance betweem ion center k=konstant
Coulombs Law -Opposite charges attract;Same charges repel -Strength of force is determined -change increases attractive force increases -distance increases attractive force decreases
Periodic Table: Group 1A Alkali Metals -very reactive
Periodic Table: Group 2A Alkaline Earth Metals -react w/HOH to produce alkaline soln. Except Be
Periodic Table: Group 6A Chalogens
Periodic Table: Group 7A Halogens -very reactive -react violently w/Alkali Metals
Periodic Table: Group 8A Noble Gases -rare gases -inert gases -not reactive
Periodic Table: Groups/Family: Columns Periods: Rows Main Elements: A Group Transition Metals: B Group
Percent Abundance Percent of a specific isotope that occurs in a natural sample of an element A.W.=((%isotope1)/100)(MassIsotope1)+...
Isotopes Atoms with the same atomic # but different mass #
AMU AMU=atomic mass 1 AMU=1.661*10^-24g
Atomic Mass Atomic weight, the average mass of an atom in a natural sample element
Mass Number (A) Number of protons and neutrons
Nuclear Strong Force Holds protons together
Positive & Negative Cation=Positive Anion=Negative
Subatomic Particles Proton(p):positive +1 Charge Electron(e):negative -1 Charge Neutron(n):nuetral 0 Charge
Alpha =positive charges particles
Naming Acids: Hydro-,-ic If anion has -ide then change it to hydro-,-ic acid (ie. HCl= hydrochloric acid)
Naming Acids: Hypo-,-ous If anion has hypo-,-ite then change it to hypo-,-ous acid (ie. HClO= hypochlorous acid)
Naming Acids: -ous If anion has -ite then change it to -ous acid (ie. HClO2= chlorous acid)
Naming Acids: -ic If anion has -ate then chenge it to -ic acid (ie. HClO3= chloric acid)
Naming Acids: per-,-ic If anion has per-,-ate then change it to per-,-ic acid (ie. HClO4= perchloric acid)
Naming Bases Add hydroxide(OH)to formula (ie. NaOH= sodium hydroxide)
Acid A compound that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Chemical Formula usually HX(X = monatomic or polyatomic ion). Chemical formula = H+
Base A compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Bases are named as if they were ionic compounds (the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion).
Naming Polyatomics: -ide No oxygen (ie. Cl= chloride)
Naming Polyatomics: hypo-,-ite -2 oxygens (ie. ClO= hypochlorite)
Naming Polyatomics: -ite -1 oxygen (ie.ClO2= chlorite)
Naming Polyatomics: -ate Common or representative oxyanion (ie. ClO3= chlorate)
Naming Polyatomics: per-,-ate +1 oxygen (ie. ClO4= perchlorate)
Monatomic Ions Single atoms that have lost or gained an electron
Polyatomic Ions Group of atoms tat have an electrical charge
Fixed Charge Al +3 Charge, Ga +3 Charge, In +3 Charge, Zn +2 Charge, Cd +2 Charge, Ag +1 Charge
Ambiguous Number No decimal point to symbolize that that was the real value.
Ionic Compound Properties -high metling points -hard and brittle -cleaves cleanly along sharp boundary
Atomic Number(Z) Number of protons
Electrostatic Force Attracts cation and anion
Molecular Covalent Bond Nonmetal bonds to nonmetal
Ionic Bonds Metals bonds to nonmetal (cation bonds to anion)
Condensed Structure Atoms are written in such a way that the structures can be determined
Metalloids Properties somewhere between metals and nonmetals
Nonmetals -solid,liquid,and gas -do not conduct electricity
Metal -solid -conducts easily -ductile(drawn into wires) -malleable(rolled into sheet)
Nuclear Symbol Symbol of element, mass#, and atomic #
Percent Error Formula %error= (|true value-average|/true value)*100 Find average of data taken and plug in.
Extensive Property Depends on the amount of substance (mass,and volume)
Intensive Property Independent of the amount of substance (density,and boiling point)
Accuracy Refers to how closely individual measurements agree with the correct or true value -percent error formula
Precision Measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another -finding averages of results (ie. Student A: 77.4 79.1 78.0 78.3 (77.4+79.1+78.0+78.3)/4=78.2 (77.4-78.2=.8,79.1-78.2=.9,78.0-78.2=.2, 78.3-78.2=.1)=2.0/4=.5 .5 is precision)
Structural Formula Shows connections among atoms by using lines to represent covalent bonds
Conversion ie. .
Molecular Formula Shows the numbers and kind of atoms in one molecule of a compound
Chemical Equations They are a concise representations of chemical reactions
Law of Conservation of Matter Matter can be neither created nor destroyed Mass of Reactants=Mass of Products
Balancing Equations 1. Write unbalanced equation using correct formula for R & P 2.Add appropriate coefficients to balance 3.Check (Equal#of same atoms) 4.Reduce coefficients to lowest whole # value
Reaction Types: Combination Reaction This type of reaction two or more substances react to form one product
Reaction Types: Decomposition Reaction Decomposition of one substance breaks down into two or more substances
Reaction Types: Combustion Reaction -rapid reaction that produces a flame -mostly involve hydrocarbons reacting with oxygen in the air
Mole Amount of a substance that contains many elementary entities (atoms,molecules,and other particles. -1mole=6.022*10^23 -Conversion factor
Avogadro's Number 6.022*10^23
Molar Mass Mass in grams of one mole of any element or molecule
Bridges From Grams to Particles GRAMS<MolarMass>MOLES<Avogadro's#>PARTICLES
Percent Composition Mass%=(MolarMassOfElement/MolarMassOfCompound)*100
Percent Composition ie. .
Bridges For Emprical Formula MASS%X>assume.100g>GRAMS X>molar mass>MOLES X> >mol to mol.ratio>EMPIRICAL.FORMULA (x=element)
Empirical Formula ie. .
Finding Subscript for E.F. Integral Factor=(Molecular Mass/E.F.Mass)
Stoichiometry Provides the quantitative relationship between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
Stoichiometry ie. .
Limiting Reactant The reactant that is used up. It limits the amount of product produced
Reactant in Excess Often heavily in excess to ensure limiting reactant is completely used up
Theoretical Yield The mass of product that could theoretically be produced assuming 100% efficiency
Actual Yield The actual amount of product produced
Percent Yield (Actual/Theoretical)*100= percent yield
Limiting Reactant ie. .
Strong Electrolyte 100% Dissociation -good conductor of electricity*
Weak Electrolyte Partially dissociation -poor conductors of electricity*
Non-Electrolyte Dissolve in HOH but don't ionize -dont conduct electricity (ie.Sugar)
Solution Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances (soln.)
Homogeneous Uniform all through out
Solvent The medium in which a solute is dissolved in to form a solution (greatest quantity)
Solute The substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution (smallest quantity)
Electrolyte Compounds whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity
Solvates/Dissociation general process in which ionic compounds separate or split into smaller molecules, ions
Strong Acids: hydrochloric acid HCl
Strong Acids: hydrobromic acid HBr
Strong Acids: hydroiodic acid HI
Strong Acids: Chloric acid HClO3
Strong Acids: perchloric acid HClO4
Strong Acids: nitric acid HNO3
Strong Acids: sulfuric acid H2SO4
Strong Bases: Group 1A Metals with OH LiOH,NaOH,KOH,RbOH,CaOH
Strong Bases: Group 2A Metals with OH Ca(OH)2,Sr(OH)2,Ba(OH)2
Solubility Exceptions: Alkali Metals, NH4 ;NO3 ;C2H3O2 None
Solubility Exceptions: Cl`,Br`,I` Ag ,Hg2 ,Pb
Solubility Exceptions: SO4 Sr ,Ba, Hg2 ,Pb
Insolubility Exceptions: CO3 ,PO4 Alkali Metals, NH4
Insolubility Exceptions: S ,OH` Alkali Metals, NH4 ,Ca ,Sr ,Ba
Precipitation Formation of an insoluble compound (solid)
Acid-Base(Neutralization) Formation of a salt and water. Proton(H+)Transfer
Gas-Forming Evolution of a water-insoluble gas "effervescence"
Oxidation-Reduction Electron transfer.
Exchange Reaction Found when precipitation, acid-base, and gas-forming reactions occur. *
Metathesis Reactions Metathesis in Greek mean "to transpose" Also known as -Double replacement reactions -Double displacement reaction -Exchange reactions
Molecular Equation All reactants and prosuct written in molecular formulas
Total Ionic Equation All soluble reactants and products written as ions
Net Ionic Equations Total ionic equation without the spetator ions
Spectator Ions Ions present before and after the reaction
Writing Net Ionic Equations 1.Write a balanced Molec. Equation 2.Dissociate all strong electrolytes 3.Cross out any remaining unchanged ions from left and right 4.Wrote the net ionic equation with the species that remain.
Net Ionic Equation ie. .
Characteristics of Acids Acid gives away protons,Taste sour, inorganic acids have H in front, organic acids have H at the end, Strong acids completely dissociate -Single arrow Weak Acids partially dissociate -double arrow
Characteristics of Bases Base is a proton acceptor, taste bitter, inorganic bases soluble metal hydroxides Strong Base complete dissociation Weak Base partial dissociation
Neutralization Reaction Reaction between strong acid and strong base -Produces HOH and salt. Creates the Net Ionic Equation
Gases Produced In a Gas-Forming Reaction H2,N2,O2,F2,Cl2 H2S H2O(Assume its a liquid unless told otherwise)
Known Gas-Forming Reaction Compounds H2CO3>H2O+CO2 H2SO3>H2O+SO2 NH4OH>H2O+NH3
Oxidation Is when an atom or ion loses an electron *
Reduction Is when an atom or ion gains an electron *
Pnemonics For Redox LEO the lion says GER Loss e` Oxidation Gain e` Reduction
Redox Reactions Reactions that involve oxidation and reduction, where e` are transferred from one reactant to another
Oxidizing Agent The reactant in a redox that causes oxidation
Reducing Agent The reactant in a redox reaction that causes reduction
Redox Reaction ie. .
Oxidation Number Indicates whether the atom is nuetral, e` rich, or e` poor
Single Replacement A BC->AC B A BC->BA C Metals replace metals, nonmetal replace nonmetals
Concentration The amount of solute diluted in a given amount of solution
Molarity Molarity=(amountofsolute[mol]/volumeofsolution[liters]) Molar Units: mol/L or M
Created by: rozakhodak