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Ch 8 Chemistry

Oxidation numbers, Chemical Equations, and Nomenclature

TermDefinition
Binary Covalent Compound Two non-metals forming a compound, use the Greek prefixes to name these compounds
Binary Ionic Compound Two elements a one metal one non-metal forming a compound. Do NOT use Greek prefixes. Simply say the name of the metal then the non-metal ending with -ide.
Binary Acid The first element of this two element compound is hydrogen. Name it by saying "hydro" followed by the second element ending with -ic acid. example hydrochloric acid
Ternary Acid A compound that contains Hydrogen, oxygen and another non-metal. Name it by saying the polyatomic ion name ending with ic if the ion ended with -ate, or -ous if the ion ended with -ite, followed by acid.
Polyatomic Ions covalently bonded groups of atoms that carry charges. These act as if they were an element generally staying together through reactions
Oxyanions Polyatomic anion - composed of Oxygen and one other element. them using Per---ate for highest # of oxygen, ----ate for the base number of oxygen, ---ite for one less than the base, and hypo----ite for the fewest number of Oxygen atoms
Hydrate a compound that contains water molecules in its crystalline structure
The symbol ↓ is used to indicates precipitate
The symbol ⇄ indicates a reversible reaction
The symbol ➝ means "yields" or "produces"
An arrow with Δ above it means indicates that heat must be supplied before a reaction w ill occur.
The symbol (s) indicates a solid reactant
the symbol (l) indicates a liquid reactant or product
the symbol (aqu) indicates the substance is dissolved in water
the symbol(g) indicates gaseous product
Oxidation Number Rule 1 Free atoms =0
Oxidation Number Rule 2 Oxidation number of Ions = their charge
Oxidation Number Rule 3 The sum of the oxidation numbers in a neutral compound = 0
Oxidation Number Rule 4 a. Group 1=+1 b. Group 2=+2 c. H=+1 or -1 d. O=-2 or -1 e. Group 17 -1
Oxidation Number Rule 5 The sum in polyatomic ion = to the charge
mono- 1
di- 2
tri- 3
tetra- 4
penta- 5
hexa- 6
hepta- 7
octa- 8
nona- 9
deca- 10
A + B --> AB Synthesis reaction
AB --> A + B decomposition reaction
AB +C --> A +BC single replacement reaction
AX + BY -----> AY + BX double replacement reacion
Created by: IcanDance