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Physics Unit 6

Heat

TermDefinition
temperature a measure of the average translational kinetic energy per molecule in a substance, measured in degrees (C, F, or K)
absolute zero the lowest possible temperature that a substance may have- the temperature at which molecules of the substance have their minimum kinetic energy
heat the energy that flows from a substance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature, commonly measured in calories or joules
internal energy the total of all molecular energies, kinetic plus potential, that are internal to a substance
specific heat capacity the quantity of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree C
conduction the transfer of heat energy by molecular & electron collisions within a substance ( especially a solid)
convection the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid; the fluid moves carrying energy with it
radiation the transfer of energy by means of electromagnetic waves
terrestrial radiation the radiation emitted by Earth to outer space
Newton's Law of Cooling the rate of loss of heat from a warm object is proportional to the temperature difference between the object & its surroundings
greenhouse effect warming of the lower atmosphere by short wavelength radiation from the Sun that penetrates the atmosphere, is absorbed by the Earth, & is reradiated at longer wavelengths that cannot easily escape Earth's atmosphere
solar constant 1400J/m^2 received from the Sun each second at the top of Earth's atmosphere on an area perpendicular to the Sun's rays; expressed in terms of power, 1.4kW/m^2
solar power energy per unit time received from the Sun
evaporation the change of phase from liquid to gaseous; a cooling process
sublimation the change of phase from solid to gaseous, bypassing the liquid phase
condensation the change of phase from gaseous to liquid; a warming process
boiling the rapid evaporation that takes place within a liquid as well as at its surface; a cooling process
regelation the process of melting under pressure & then subsequently refreezing when the pressure is removed
heat pump a device that transfers heat out of a cool environment & into a warm environment
latent heat of fusion the amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid (and released in the reversed process)
latent heat of vaporization the amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from liquid to gas (and released in the reversed process)
Created by: ginaliane