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Chemistry

Chapter 13

TermDefinition
gases contain particles that are far apart, in random motion, and independent of one another
solids contain particles very close in space and maintain a rigid shape; significant attractive forces exist between particles.
liquids intermediate between gases and solids
evaporation or vaporization escape of molecules from the liquid to the gas phase
condensation when molecules from the liquid phase can escape to the vapor phase through evaporation, molecules in the gas phase can strike the surface of the liquid and return to the liquid phase.
vapor pressure pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid phase.
volatile liquids very weak attractive forces between molecules; evaporate very rapidly at ambient temperature and have high vapor pressures as a result.
cohesive forces exist between water molecules in a liquid.
adhesive forces exist between water molecules and the walls of the container
convex adhesive forces < cohesive forces
concave adhesive forces > cohesive forces
normal boiling point temperature when the vapor pressure is 1 atm
water 100 ºC
ether 35 ºC
ethyl alcohol 78 ºC
freezing/melting point the temperature at which the solid phase of a substance is in equilibrium with its liquid phase.
heat of fusion energy required to change 1 g of a solid at its melting point to a liquid
heat of vaporization energy required to change 1 g of a liquid to vapor at its normal boiling point
ice melts total energy = mass x heat of fusion
liquid water is warmed from 0° to 100°C energy = mass x specific heat x ΔT
water evaporates energy = mass x heat of vaporization
hydrogen bonds one type of strong intermolecular force/attraction between molecules
london forces arise from uneven, instantaneous charge distributions due to electron movement in nonpolar molecules.
hydrates are solids that contain water molecules as part of their crystalline structure
% water mass water/molar mass x 100
osmosis process by which water flows through a membrane from a region of more pure water to a region of less pure water
reverse osmosis process by which water flows through a membrane from a region of less pure water to a region of more pure water, due to the presence of an external stimulus (typically pressure)
Created by: danat214