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Gases

Gases Yr 11 Chemistry

TermDefinition
Avogadro's Law Equal volumes of any gas, measured at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of particles. V1/n1 = V2/n2 Direct
Kinetic Theory of Gases 1). Molecules move in continual random straight-line motion. 2). Average distance between molecules is very large. 3). Negligible intermolecular forces. 4). Perfectly elastic collisions between molecules - no net energy loss. 5). Pressure is due to collisions of the molecules with the walls of the container. 6). Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
Molar Volume formula Number of moles of gas = volume of gas (at STP) / volume of one mole of gas (at STP) STP in this case is an example – the volumes must be measured at a consistent temperature and pressure, but it doesn’t need to be STP.
STP Standard Temperature and Pressure 0 C and 100 kPa
SLC Standard Laboratory Conditions 25 C and 100 kPa
Molar Volume at STP 22.71 L
Molar Volume at SLC 24.79 L
Graham's Law Rates of diffusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses. Rate A / Rate B = sqrt(Molar Mass B / Molar Mass A)
Pressure formula Pressure = force / area
Dalton's Law The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture. Ptotal = Px + Py + Pz Pgas = Ptotal x Moles of gas / Total moles
Temperature is measured in Kelvin (conversion from Celsius = C + 273)
Boyle's Law At a constant temperature, the volume of a fixed quantity of gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure. P1V1 = P2V2 inverse relationship
Charles' Law At a constant pressure, the volume of a fixed quantity of gas is proportional to its absolute (kelvin) temperature. V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 direct
Gay-Lussac's Law If the volume of a container is held constant as the temperature of a gas increases, the pressure inside the container will also increase. P1 / T1 = P2 /V2 direct
Combined Gas Law P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2 direct
General Gas Equation (Ideal Gas Equation) PV = nRT p = pressure, v = volume, n = number of moles, R = universal gas constant, T = temperature
Created by: MrMartyn1