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Chemistry Ch 7A

Chemistry 101

Chemical Reactions a process in which atoms of different elements can combine/ decompose to make new compounds,atoms can be exchanged or transferred and gain or lose electrons
Elements are not...? transmuted during a reaction
Evidence of Chemical Change heat,light, color change,gas, and formation of precipitate
Chemical Equations are a shorthand way of describing a reaction
Energy Symbols D=Heat, Hn=light, shock= mechanical, elec- electrical
In balanced chemical equations The # of atoms of each element in reactants = the # of atoms in products
In writing balanced equations you 1. Write a skeletal equation by writing the formula of each reactant and product 2. Count the number of atoms of each side of the equation(Poly ions sometimes = 1 element) 3.Pick an element to balance
How do you pick which elements to balance first if an element is found in only one compounds on each side, balance it first, balance metals before non-metals, if an element is free on either side of the equation balance it last
Synthesis/Combination A + B = AB ( Two or more reactants combine to form one product)
Decomposition AB = A +B ( One substance splits into two or more simpler substances)
Single Displacement A + BC = AC +B ( One element takes place of another element)
Double Displacement AB + CD = AD +CB ( Two elements in the reactants exchange places)
Aqueous Solutions dissolving chemicals in water reacts faster, water separates the chemicals into individual molecules or ions, free-floating particles come in contact more frequently so the reaction speeds up
Dissociation when ionic compounds dissolve in water the anions and cations are separated from each other
Dissociation of Polyatomic Ions the groups stay together as one functioning ion
Strong electrolytes all the electrolyte molecules or formula units are separated into ions.
In weak electrolytes a small percentage of the molecules are separated into ions.
In nonelectrolytes none of the molecules are separated into ions.
Types of Electrolytes Salts = Water soluble ionic compounds. Acids = Form H+1 ions and anions in water solution. Strong acid = strong electrolyte, weak acid = weak electrolyte. Bases = Water-soluble metal hydroxides. Increases the OH-1 concentration.
precipitation reactions If a chemical reactions between ions in aqueous medium result in insoluble salts, and the insoluble salt will come out of solution as a precipitate.
Are all ionic compounds, salts , water soluble no
CO32-, S2-, PO43-, OH- are soluble with NH4+, Li+, Na+, K+
Cl-, Br-, R are not soluble with Ag+, Pb12+, Hg22+
SO42- Ba2+, Pb2+, Ca2+, Sr12+
Molecular equations are Equations that describe the chemicals put into water and the products formed.
complete ionic equations are Equations that describe the actual dissolved species in water
net ionic equation is An equation in which the spectator ions are removed
Properties of Acids are sour taste, react with active metals, are corrosive, react with carbonates, and react with bases to form ionic salts
Properties of Bases are A.k.a. alkali's. Taste bitter. Feel slippery. Change color of litmus and vegetable dyes. Different color than acid. Litmus = blue. React with acids to form ionic salts. And often water. Neutralization.
neutralization reactions are acid-base reactions, The H+1 from the acid combines with the OH-1 from the base to make water, and The cation from the base combines with the anion from the acid to make the salt.
Gas Evolution Reactions Reactions in which one of the products escapes as a gas are called gas evolution reactions, Some reactions directly form a gas from the exchange of ions, In other reactions, the decomposition of one of products result in a gas and water.
Oxidation–reduction reactions are The element that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized. The substance that gains electrons in the reaction is reduced. Oxidation and Reduction are simultaneous.
Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions: Reactions in which O2 is consumed by another substance. Always release heat and/or other forms of energy. Produce one or more oxygen-containing compounds.
Gain of Oxygen Loss of Oxygen Oxidation Reduction
Gain of Hydrogen Loss of Hydrogen Reduction Oxidation
Created by: mada22