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A set of flashcards for Chemistry, that's all

chemistry The science that deals with the materials of the universe and the changes these materials undergo
measurement observations that involve a number and unit
scientific method a pattern of investigation procedures
bias occurs when a scientist's expectations change how the results are analyzed or how the conclusions are made
theory explanation based on repeated observations and investigations
natural law a statement about what happens that seems to be true all of the time
experiment a method of collecting data to test a hypothesis
matter the stuff that the universe is made of
atom a fundamental unit of which elements are made
element only one type of atom
allotrope the same element, but with a different physical form
compound atoms of different elements that form a new substance
molecule a collection of atoms bonded together that behave as a unit
physical change does no effect the composition
chemical change when a new substance is formed
mixture substances added together without chemical change
alloy a solid mixture with metallic properties
pure substance either a pure element or compound
homogeneous mixture a mixture that is the same throughout
heterogeneous mixture a mixture with regions of different properties
distillation separation process that depends on the different boiling points of the substances
filtration separating by using filter paper
law of constant composition a given compound always contains the same proportion of elements
the Rutherford experiment discovered that the atom is mostly empty space
valance electrons electrons in the outer level or sub level that are involved in reations
atomic numer the number of protons
atomic mass the number of protons and neutrons
isotope the same element but with a different number of nuetrons
average atomic mass the average mass of all the isotopes of an element
half life the amount of time it takes for half of a sample of an isotope to break down into other elements
carbon dating using the decay of C-14 to determine the age of organic substances
families columns on the Periodic table
periods rows on the Periodic table
electron dot structure a shorthand method of showing the number of valance electrons
ion an atom that has gained or lost electrons
oxidation number the charge of an ion
chemical bond the force that holds atoms together in a compound
ionic bond where electrons are transferred, creating opposite charges which attract
chemical formula indicates the elements in a compound and the ratio of the elements
binary 1 compound includes two elements, an A group metal and nonmetal
binary 2 compound includes a transition metal and nonmetal
binary 3 compoud includes two nonmetals
polyatomic ion a group of charged atoms that act as a single ion
acid a substance that donates a hydrogen ion
standard the exact quantity that people use to compare measurements
length straight line distance between two points
mass the amount of matter in an object
volume amount of space occupied by an object
density the mass per unit volume of a material
temperature the average kinetic energy of all particles in an object
scientific notation the shorthand method of reporting large and small numbers
accuracy the degree to which a measurement agrees with the actual value
precision the refinement in a measurement
significant figures those digits that carry meaning and contribute to precision
molar mass the mass of 1 mole of a sbustance
percent composition (by mass) the percent of the mass a compound makes up in an element
empirical formula the smallest whole number ratio of elements in a compound
molecular formula a formula of a compound that indicates the true number of the atoms of each element
hydrate a compound with water chemically attached to it
chemical reaction a well-defined example of a chemical change
strong electrolyte completely splits apart in a solution
nonelectrolyte has no ions and doesn't split in a solution
molecular equation equation where all species are listed as molecules
complete ionic equation equation where all ions are included before and after
net ionic equation equation that removes all spectator ions
synthesis a reaction where two or more substances combine to form a new, simpler substance
combustion a reaction where CO2 and H2O are formed
decomposition a reaction where one substance breaks into two or more simpler substances
single-displacement a reaction where one element replaces another in a compouund
acid- base reactions a reaction where H2O and a salt are formed
oxidation-reduction a reaction where electrons are transferred
oxidized becomes more positively charged
reduced becomes more negatively charged
salt an ionic compound whose cation comes from a base, and anion from an acid
double-displacement a reaction where a precipitate, water, or gas is formed when two ionic compounds in a solution are combined
activity series a list of metals arranged in decreasing ease of oxidation
Created by: cld19