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Bio Unit 2

Organic Chemistry

what is an organic compound? any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
what are the basic elements of carbohydrates? carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
what are the basic elements of lipids? carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
what are the basic elements of proteins? carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen
what are the basic elements of nucleic acids? carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and phosphorus
what are the basic units of carbohydrates? (monomers) monosaccharides
what are the basic units of lipids? (monomers) glycerol and fatty acids
what are the basic units of proteins? (monomers) amino acids {they are the building blocks of proteins!}
what are the basic units of nucleic acids ? (monomers) nucleotides
what are the larger structures of carbohydrates? (polymers) polysaccharides
what are the larger structures of lipids? (polymers) triglycerols
what are the larger structures of proteins? (polymers) polypeptides (=many peptide bonds)
what are the larger structures of nucleic acids? (polymers) polynucleotides
structure is related to... function
polar an unequal distribution/sharing of electrons (in the outer shell) between molecules // unequal sharing
nonpolar an equal distribution/sharing of electrons (in the outer shell) between molecules // equal sharing
covalent bond a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
what are the properties of water? low viscosity, colorless and transparent, universal solvent, ice is less dense than water
what is the molecular formula for a carboxyl group? COOH (carbon single bonded to OH, and double bonded to oxygen)
what is the molecular formula for a hydrogen group? H2O (two hydrogens and an oxygen)
what is the molecular formula for an amino group? NH2 (two hydrogens and a nitrogen)
what is the molecular formula for a hydroxyl group? OH (oxygen bonded to hydrogen) {this is where chemical reactions want to occur}
where do chemical reactions want to occur? in functional groups
what substance is a result of dehydration synthesis? water
what is the primary structure of proteins? the order of amino acids
what is the secondary structure of proteins? the bending of amino acids (forms alpha helix or beta pleated sheet)
what is the tertiary structure of proteins? the folding of polypeptides
what is the quaternary structure of proteins? when two different polypeptides come together
what does it mean for a protein to become denatured? it has lost its structure {caused by an unfavorable pH, temperature, or radiation} - cannot be "renatured" or folded back, you must break it down into its amino acids first, then you can fold it back up
what are the elements of life? CHONPS - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
ionic bond form when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom // a chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges // + and -
hydrogen bond interaction between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom bonded to another electronegative atom (always involve a hydrogen atom)
dehydration synthesis/condensation reaction when you have two monomers (chains of elements) - you take out a hydroxyl group from one, and a regular hydrogen from another, they come together to form water, and the two monomers join to make a polymer
hydrolysis opposite of dehydration synthesis; you put the water back into the molecules, so the polymer goes back to monomers
anabolism making fat/building reactions
catabolism breaking down process/breaking reactions
metabolism sum of all chemical reactions
what makes each of the 20 amino acids different? the R group
catabolic reaction usually release energy that is used to drive chemical reactions
anabolic reaction build new molecules and/or store energy
cohesion when a molecule "sticks" to itself
adhesion when a molecule "sticks" to a different molecule
carbohydrates are ___________ polar
water is __________ polar (slight negative charge on one side, slight positive charge on the other side)
what are simple carbohydrates? Give examples. short chains of monosacchorides; broken down and digested very quickly, but contain refined sugars and very few essential vitamins and minerals; examples: raw sugar. brown sugar. corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup. glucose, fructose, and sucrose, etc
what are complex carbohydrates? Give examples. long chains of monosacchorides; take longer to digest and are packed with fiber, vitamins and minerals; examples: vegetables, whole grain breads, oatmeal, legumes, brown rice, wheat pasta, etc
ions that are _________ and _________ charged are attracted to each other and _______ positively, negatively; BOND
Give information about carbon. the essential atom to life; has 4 valence electrons (in outermost shell); shares its electrons with lots of other atoms (elements)
single vs double covalent bond single = one electron pair shared double = two electron pairs shared
disaccharide two monosacchorides combined into one (results when two monosacchorides are joined through dehydration synthesis)
what purpose do carbohydrates serve in the body? supply energy, store energy, spare protein and fats for other use and macromolecules
what purpose do lipids serve in the body? provides a source of energy, provides membrane around cells
what purpose do proteins serve in the body? builds cell structure function and regulates the body's tissues and organs
what purpose do nucleic acids serve in the body? used to make proteins and carries hereditary info
lipids ______ interact with water do not
monounsaturated only one double bond
polyunsaturated many double bonds
saturated fatty acids solid at room temperature; no double bonds, so no gaps in the fatty acid chain; linear (packed closely together)
unsaturated fatty acids liquid at room temperature; have double bonds and these double bonds break up the string of CH2´s and create gaps within the fatty acid chain; weird shape (packed farther - weird shape -> liquid)
what is the general molecular form for carbohydrates? C6H12O6 (1:2:1 ratio)
how many bonds does nitrogen want to make? how many bonds can it actually make? 3,4
what is an R group? an abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule
peptide bond a chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O) (dehydration synthesis)
what is a functional group? a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound
what are some functions of protein? structure, catalysis, transport, storage, and many others
what is the common carbohydrate molecular formula? C6H12O6 (1:2:1 ratio)
Created by: ka0624