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Chemistry Vocab OW

Chemistry Vocabulary

atom smallest part of an element that cannot be broken down by any chemical means
nucleus central most important part of an atom; most of the mass of an atom is found here
protons parts of an atom that carries a positive electric charge; found in the nucleus
neutrons parts of an atom that carry no charge; found in the nucleus
electrons parts of an atom that carry a negative electric charge; found continually moving around the nucleus in the electron cloud
electron cloud the region of negative charge that surrounds the nucleus of an atom part of the atom that takes up the most space; electrons are found here
element is a substance formed when two or more elements are joined together chemically
Periodic Table of Elements a table of the elements, arranged in order of increasing atomic number. Elements having similar chemical properties and electronic structures appear in vertical columns.
atomic mass the mass of an atom (the sum of the protons and neutrons in the atom’s nucleus)
atomic number the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus
compound a substance that contains two or more elements that are chemically combined and cannot be separated by physical means
molecule the smallest particle of a substance that retains the chemical and physical properties of the substance and is composed of two or more atoms
chemical bonds an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms. This bond is caused by the sharing of electrons.
mixture a composition of two or more substances that are not chemically combined with each other and can be physically separated.
heterogeneous mixture mixture made up of two or more different substances, which are mixed but are not combined chemically; Ex. Cereal, milkshakes, salad dressings with oil.
homogeneous mixture mixture in which particles of one substance are spread evenly throughout the other substance. Ex. Tea, root beer.
pH scale range of numbers that tell how acidic or basic a solution it. Range is from 1 – 14.
indicator something you use to test a solution to find out whether it is acidic or basic (litmus paper).
acidity (acid) compounds that produce hydronium ions when dissolved in water. An acidic solution is one that has a 1-6 on the pH scale. Ex. Vinegar, oranges, stomach acid.
alkalinity (base) compounds that produce hydroxide ions in water. A basic solution is one that has an 8-14 on the pH scale. Ex. Soap, ammonia, oven cleaner, antacids.
salts products that result when an acid and base neutralize each other. The process of neutralization always produces water and a salt.
Created by: pendletons