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Reveiw of Biochemistry I part 2

Simple Sugars/Monosaccharides Cn(H20)n
Glyceraldehyde (C3H6O3) Used by cells, 2 possible enantiomers.
dextrorotary-glyceraldehyde used as fuel. OH on chiral carbon goes up or to the right.
Ribose (C5H10O5) 8 stereoisomers, found in RNA, ATP, etc. An aldopentose.
Glucose (C5H12O6) 16 stereoisomers, blood sugar, an aldohexose
Galactose stereoisomer of glucose
Anomeric Carbon Has 2 oxygens bound to it, is the hemiacetal/hemiketal carbon.
Reducing sugars A substance which will react as a reducing agent and will allow itself to be oxidized.
Disaccharides Cn(H2O)n-1 contain simple sugars, and glycosidic linkages
Maltose Contains an alpha 1,4 linkage
What does hydrolysis of maltose yield? 2 glucoses
Lactose Contains Beta 1,4 linkage
What does hydrolysis of lactose yield? glucose and galactose.
Sucrose Contains Alpha 1, beta 2 linkage. Has no unbound anomeric carbon.
What does hydrolysis of sucrose yield? A glucose and a fructose.
Oligosaccharides Carbohydrates with 3 to 15 simple sugars. These are labeled as dietary fibers, because the are indigestible.
Polysaccharides Carbohydrates with 15+ simple sugars. Starch.
Starch a homopolymer of glucose. Associated with plants, stores energy.
Glycogen a homopolymer of glucose. Associated with animals, energy storage. Stored in Liver and skeletal muscles cells.
Cellulose Wood. Indigestible.
Fatty Acids The 3rd type of building block molecule. Have a long hydrophobic tail.
Saturated fats have no double bounds
Unsaturated fats Have one or more double bonds. Missing at least 2 hydrogens.
Glycerol a trialcohol that accommodates 3 fatty acids via esterification
Triacylgycerol (TAG) A storage mode for lipids. Stored in adipocytes, not water soluble.
2 Types of TAGs Oils and fats
Oils Liquid at room temp. due to increased number of double bonds. Plant source.
Fats Solid at room temp. Saturated. Animal source.
Polar Lipids Have a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end. Found in membranes, micelles, etc.
What are the two categories of polar lipids? Diacyglycerols, and sphingolipids.
Diacylglycerols Contain 2 acyl groups
Sphingolipids From sphingosines (a molecule with a HC tail.) Has only one fatty acid in its structure. Is an amide – there are no ester linkages.Has 2 HC tails
Cholesterol A structural component of lipid bi-layers. We do not metabolize therefore no energy content. Hydrophobic.
Created by: eane220