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Chemistry Ch 5&9

Chemistry Ch 5, 6, &9

TermDefinition
Acetate C2H3O2-
Carbonate CO32-
Hydrogencarbonate (aka bicarbonate) HCO3-
Hydroxide OH-
Nitrate NO3-
Nitrite NO2-
Chromate CrO42-
Dichromate Cr2O72-
Ammonium NH4+
Hypochlorite ClO-
Chlorite ClO2-
Chlorate ClO3-
Perchlorate ClO4-
Sulfate SO42-
Sulfite SO32-
Hydrogen sulfate (aka bisulfate) HSO4-
Hydrogen sulfite (aka bisulfite) HSO3-
Em Spectrum regions are based on wave lengths and all em radiation gives off color
Ionic Compounds - metal cations + nonmetal anions -may be binary or compounds w/polyatomic ions -ends with ide -type 2 metals= charge in parenthesis
Rutherfords Model The mass is confined to the nucleus and the electrons orbit the nucleus in a large space
Bohr Model of Success and Failure Accurately predicts the spectrum of hydrogen but fails when applied to multi electron atoms
Bohr Atom Model The energy of electrons is quantized(they can only hold a certain amount of energy), orbit the nucleus like planets, and the further away that are from the nucleus the more energy they have and when they leap closer they emit photon light
Light and Matter Electrons can take energy but they eventually need to release it and when they do it's in the form of light
1 mole = ? 6.022 x 10^23 atoms
Relationship between moles and mass The mass of one mole of atoms is called the molar mass,and molar mass is equal to the elements amu
1 mole 6.02 x10^23 protons =1g
Molar Mass of Compounds - masses of molecules can be calculated from atomic wights of constituent elements (Formula Mass of Water = mass of ! molecule of H20)
Identify groups and periods on a periodic table Period: ea row (7 rows) with corresponding orbitals Groups(Column): same number of valence electrons, valence electrons are in the same type of subshell
metallic and non metal atoms in periodic table right of what doesn't touch the staircase
Group 1A elements and general properties soft, low melting points, low density, very reactive, never found combined in nature, reacts with water to form alkaline solutions(basic) and H2
Group 2A elements and general properties harder, higher melting point, denser than alkali metals,Reactive, -less than corresponding alkali metal., Form stable, insoluble oxides,Oxides are basic = alkaline earth, Reactivity with water to form H2, Be = none, Mg = steam, Ca, Sr, Ba = cold water<Ba
Group 7A elements and general properties Nonmetals, F2 and Cl2 gases, Br2 liquid, and I2 solid, All diatomic, Very reactive, Halogens, all
Group 8A elements and general properties All gases at room temperature, Very unreactive, practically inert, Very hard to remove electron from or give an electron to. , Xe and before
Cations and Anions cation= +, anion -
Number of protons/ electrons = to atomic number
isotope? Atoms of Elements with different numbers of neutrons, All isotopes of an element are chemically identical, All isotopes of an element have the same number of protons, Isotopes of an element have different masses
What is wave particle duality? the property of matter and electromagnetic radiation that is characterized by the fact that some properties can be explained best by wave theory and others by particle theory
Which particles obey the physics of light waves? Most subatomic particles, such as an electron, behave as particles and obey the physics of light waves.
Visible Spectrum frequency range/ and wavelength 750 nm-400 nm, 10^4Hz 10^24Hz
Sub energy levels and their labels –s,p,d, f s subshells have 1 orbital. p subshells have 3 orbitals. d subshells have 5 orbitals. f subshells have 7 orbitals.
Why do elements of the same groups behave similarly same number of valence electrons
why do elements with electron configurations close to the noble gases are the most reactive because they can attain noble gas electron configurations by losing or gaining a small number of electrons.
How do the radii of atoms vary across a given period of the periodic table and down a given group of the periodic table? Explain why? decrease from left to right across a period,increase from top to bottom along a group,the size of an orbital increases w/ increasing principal quantum #, the electrons that occupy the outermost orbitals are farther from the nucleus as you move down column
The concept of mole In reality Avogadro built a theoretical foundation for determining accurate atomic and molecular masses
Empirical formula Percent to mass>mass to moles>divide by small> multiply till whole>Element with subscripts
Created by: mada22