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Chem 07 Covalent

Terms/Vocabulary related to Ionic and Metallic Bonding

TermDefinition
formation of compounds by sharing electrons between atoms covalent bonding
attraction of atoms for mutually shared electrons covalent bond
most stable arrangement of valence electrons noble gas configuration OR stable octet
combination of elements that covalently bond nonmetal + nonmetal
a single atom of any of this group of elements could be described as a 'monatomic molecule' noble gases
3 terms which all describe the mutually shared electrons in a covalent bond shared pair bonding pair covalent electron pair
3 terms which all describe valence electrons of a covalently-bonded atom but not taking part in the bond unshared pair nonbonding pair lone pair
statement: valence electrons rearrange themselves during bonding so that both bonded atoms attain a noble gas configuration (NGC) octet rule
any element that can bond with itself to form a stable molecule consisting of 2 atoms diatomic element
mnemonic for remembering the 7 diatomic elements name: Br,I,N,Cl,H,O,F OR Super-7 (OR "...Beer")
neutral, stable cluster of covalently-bonded atoms OR the smallest unit of a covalent compound molecule
covalent bond consisting of 2 electrons, one provided by each bonding atom single bond
covalent bond consisting of 4 electrons, half of which are provided by each bonding atom double bond
covalent bond consisting of 6 electrons, half of which are provided by each bonding atom triple bond
diatomic element held together by a double bond || oxygen
diatomic element held together by a triple bond ||| nitrogen
shape of any molecule consisting of only two atoms linear
term that describes any compound consisting of only two elements (may be >2 atoms) binary
shows the arrangement of atoms in space (examples: H–Cl or O=C=O) structural formula
tells the # and kinds of atoms in a molecule molecular formula
shape of a water molecule, H2O bent
shape of an ammonia molecule, NH3 pyramidal
shape of a methane molecule, CH4 tetrahedral
explains that molecular geometry (shape) is a result of electrons in bonds spreading out to minimize repulsions V.S.E.P.R. Theory
explains that atomic orbitals of different energy can rearrange themselves into an equivalent number of molecular orbitals of identical energy (ex: s+p+p+p = 4 sp3's) hybridization
numerical prefix meaning "1" mono-
numerical prefix meaning "2" di-
numerical prefix meaning "3" tri-
numerical prefix meaning "4" tetra-
numerical prefix meaning "5" penta-
numerical prefix meaning "6" hexa-
numerical prefix meaning "7" hepta-
numerical prefix meaning "8" octa-
numerical prefix meaning "9" nona-
numerical prefix meaning "10" deca-
trigonal planar molecule that is an octet rule exception having 6 valence electrons boron trifluoride BF3
trigonal bipyramidal molecule that is an octet rule exception having 10 valence electrons phosphorus pentachloride PCl5
octahedral molecule that is an octet rule exception having 12 valence electrons sulfur hexafluoride SF6
any naming system (ex: using Roman numerals for ionic, but numerical prefixes for covalent compounds) nomenclature
measure of the attraction of an atom for the electrons in a bond electronegativity
range of values for the electronegativity scale 0.0 - 4.0
unit for the electronegativity scale unitless OR pauling
describes a bond in which the electrons are shared equally nonpolar covalent
describes a bond in which the electrons are shared, but unequally polar covalent
describes a bond in which the electrons are lost by one atom and gained by another ionic bond
bond classification when the electronegativity difference between the two bonded atoms is 0.0 - 0.4 nonpolar
bond classification when the electronegativity difference between the two bonded atoms is 0.5 - 1.9 polar
bond classification when the electronegativity difference between the two bonded atoms is 2.0 or greater ionic
any of the weak attractions that hold one molecule to another in solids and liquids intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces)
weakest intermolecular force caused by random motion and occasional unbalanced distribution of electrons in bonds London dispersion (dispersion interaction)
moderate intermolecular force between polar molecules dipole-dipole forces
strongest intermolecular force arising from attraction between a hydrogen in a very polar bond and a nearby long pair in another molecule hydrogen bond (H-bonding)
3 elements that hydrogen must be bonded to for it to exert hydrogen bonding on neighboring molecules F, O, N
three important examples of the outcome of H-bonding in nature water expands when it freezes, DNA double helix separation during replication, protein (ex: hemoglobin) folding to form receptor sites
ionic compound with a set # of covalently-bonded water molecules attached to stabilize the crystal lattice hydrate
describes the powdery part of a hydrate that remains when its water of hydration is removed, usually by heating anhydrous
the water molecules that are attached to the ionic part of a hydrate to hold it together water of hydration
meaning of "•" symbol in hydrate formula (ex: CaCl2•2H2O) attached (or added) to
a covalent compound which, when dissolved in water, has at least one hydrogen atom that is pulled off (ionized) by action of the water acid
acid naming pattern for binary hydrogen compound hydro-root-ic acid
acid naming pattern for hydrogen bonded to polyatomic ion whose name ends in "-ate" root+ic acid
acid naming pattern for hydrogen bonded to polyatomic ion whose name ends in "-ite" root-ous acid
overall charge of a molecule neutral (0)
general name for the + or – number used to indicate an ion's charge (or, an atom's combining ability) oxidation number
molecular orbitals: s+s (o+o) = shape? σ or π? "football"; σ
molecular orbitals: s+p (o+∞) = shape? σ or π? "bowling pin", σ
molecular orbitals: p+p... end to end (∞+∞) = shape? σ or π? "tootsie roll" (wrapped); σ
molecular orbitals: p+p... side by side (8+8) = shape? σ or π? 2 "beans"; π
How many σ & π bonds in: O=C=O? 2 σ & 2 π (in multiple bonds, first 'stick' is sigma, 2nd/3rd is pi)
How many σ & π bonds in: O=O? 1 σ & 1 π
How many σ & π bonds in: H–O–O–H? (hydrogen peroxide) 3 σ & 0 π
Created by: goakley