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Chem 102

What has a greater "energy density" than stored carbohydrates stored fats
what is more stable DNA or RNA and why? DNA; it is missing the OH groups
where does a nucleotide chain have a free phosphate group and a free OH group 5' phosphate; 3' OH
What base pair has the strongest bond? C to G
Replication a replica or identicle copy of DNA is made when a cell divides
semi conservative a pair of DNA double helix's where one strand is old and one is new
Acetyl-SCoA participates in... TAG Synthesis; ketogenisis; synthesis of steroids and other lipids; citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation
TAG Mobilization when you have digested a meal blood glucose levels are low, insulin levels are low, and glucogan levels are high.The low insulin level and glucogan level activates TAG lipase which controls the hydrolysis of stored TAGs
TAG Synthesis After a meal blood glucose levels are high, insulin levels raise and glucogon levels dropGlucose enters the cells and glycolysis proceeds rapidly; insulin activates the synthasis of TAG's for storage
ketone bodies compounds produced in the liver that can be used as fuel by muscle and brain tissue
3 types of ketone bodies 3-hyroxybutrateacetoacetateacetone
ketogenesis the synthesis of ketone bodies from acetyl-SCoA
ketoacidosis lowered blood pH due to accumulation of ketone bodies
lipogenesis the biochemical pathway for synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-SCoA
DNA the nucleic acid that stores genetic information
chromosome a complex of proteins and DNA; visible during cell division
gene segment of DNA that directs the synthesis of a single polypeptide
nucleic acid a polymer of nucleotides; a long chain of nucleotides
nucleotide a five carbon sugar bonded to a cyclic amine base and a phosphate group
RNA nucleic acids responsible for putting the genetic info to use in protein synthesis
nucleoside a five carbon sugar bonded to a cyclic amine base; similar to a nucleotide but with no phosphate group
transcription the process by which the info in the DNA is read and used to synthesize RNA
translation the process by which RNA directs protein synthesis
Triacylglycerol Metabolism involves catabolism and anabolism
HDL (high density lipoprotein transport cholesterol from dead or dying cells to the liver then it converts it to bile acids
LDL (low density lipoprotein carry cholesterol from the liver through the bloodstream to the tissues
IDL (intermediate density lipoprotein) carry the excess VLDL from the tissues to the liver for synthesis
VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) carry TAG's from liver to tissues; use for energy storage or energy generation
chylomicrons transport lipids from diet; carry TAG's; lowest density
lipoproteins a lipid-protein complex that transports lipids
What are the three ways lipids enter the metabolism? dietstoragesynthesized in the liver
Where do smaller free fatty acids and acylglycerols, glycerol go? to cappilary network then to the liver
What brings the cholesterol, TAG's and phospholipids through the bloodstream? chylomicrons
a low Kow means... hydrophilic/polar
a high Kow means... hydrophobic and a lipid
leukotrienes the release of it has been found to trigger the asthmatic response, severe allergic reactions, and inflammation
prostaglandin all contain a five member ring; responsible for some pain and swelling that come with inflamation
Eicosanoid a lipid derived from a 20 carbon unsaturated corboxylic acid; short lived chemical messengers
facilitated diffusion passive transport across a cell membrane with the assistance of a protein that changes shapeex. glucose
simple diffusion passive transport by the random motion of diffusion through the cell membrane
2 types of passive transport simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion
active transport substances can cross the membrane only when energy is supplied because they must go in the reverse direction; from low concentration to high
passive transport substances move across the membrane freely by diffusion from regions of high concentration to low concentration
Integral proteins extend completley through the cell membrane and are anchored by hydrophobic regions that extend through the bilayer; some form channels
2 properties of phospholipid bilayers impermeable to polar molecules; flexible but durable
what can be trapped in the center of liposomes? watersoluble substances
liposomes a spherical structure in which a lipid bilayer surrounds a water droplet
lipid bilayer the basic structural unit of cell membranescomposed of 2 parallel sheets of membrane lipid molecules arranged from tail to tail
what is the most abundant animal steroid? and where is it synthesized? cholesterol; in the liver
2 major funcions of steroids... hormones; as the bile acids that are essential for the digestion of fats and oils in the diet
2 functions of cholesterol... a component of cell membranes; the starting material for the synthesis of all other steroids
what does cholesterol allow cell membranes to do>?. be more fluid
What are glycolipids essential for and what do they function as? function as receptors that are essential for recognizing chemical messengers other cells pathogens and drugs
glycolipid lipid + sugar
phospholipid lipid with an ester link between phosphoric acid and an alcohol; lipid+phosphate
Polyunsaturated 2 or more double bonds
Monounsaturated only 1 double bond
Unsaturated fat 1 or more double bonds
Saturated fat all single bonds
Micelle spherical cluster formed by the aggregation of soap or detergent molecules so that their hydrophobic ends are in the center and the hydrophilic ends are on the surface
sopanification hydrolysis of triacylglycerols
hydrogenation adding H2 to get rid of the double bonds; can have partial
fat a mixture of triacylglycerals that is solid because it contains a high proportion of saturated fatty acids
oil a mixture of triacylglycerols that is liquid because it contains a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids
Which has the lowest melting point saturated or unsaturated? unsaturated
unsaturated fatty acid long chan carboxylic acid containin 1 or more carbon carbon double bonds
saturated fatty acid a long chain carboxylic acid containing only carbon carbon single bonds
How many carbon atoms do fatty acids in animal fats and veg oils have? 12-22
What are the two groups of lipids that are not esters or amides? steroids; eicosanoids
Glycolipids contain polar carbohydrate groups
Shingomyelins amides derived from an alcohol; contain charged phosphate diester groups; essential to the structure of cell membranes; abundant in nerve cell membranes
Shingolipids cover nerves
glycerphospholipids triesters of glycerol that contain charged phosphate diester groups; high in cell membrane; help control the flow of molecules into and out of the cell
Created by: elisesch