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Chemistry Terms :)

terms used in yr 11 chemistry

accuracy closeness to the true value
acid substance or solution which shows properties characteristic of the presence of hydrogen ions e.g.turns moist litmus red, sour taste
acidity extent of acid properties
activation energy energy needed to begin a chemical reaction
addition polymer polymer formed by adding together of monomer molecules containing C=C
alkane hydrocarbon with general formula CnH2n+2
alkanol molecule saturated with hydrogen like an alkane and containing an alcohol functional group –OH; general formula CnH2n+1OH
alkene hydrocarbon with general formula CnH2n
allotropes different physical forms of an element
alloy mixture of metal with other element(s) that are usually metal(s)
amphiprotic ionic or molecular species which can act both as an acid by donating protons and a base by accepting protons
anaerobic without oxygen or air
analyse identify components and the relationship between them; draw out and relate implications
anionic negatively charged
anode electrode at which oxidation occurs
antifreeze chemical added to water to lower its freezing point
apply use in a particular situation
aq phase descriptor for aqueous solution
aqueous solution solution with water as the solvent
Arrhenius theory of acids and bases acid produces hydrogen ions in water while a base produces hydroxide ions in water
artefact object made by human hand
assess make a judgement of value, quality, outcomes, results or size
atmosphere layer of gas around the Earth
atomic absorption spectroscopy AAS; a technique able to measure the amount of element present in ppm or ppb
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom; unique number for each element
atomic radius radius of an atom usually measured in picometres (10-12 m)
atomic structure arrangement of protons and neutrons in a nucleus surrounded by electrons in shells
Avogadro’s law equal volumes of gases, at the same conditions of temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules
balanced formulae equation chemical reactions expressed in formulas and balanced so that there is the same number of each type of atom on reactants side and products side e.g. 2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O
base substance or solution which shows properties characteristic of the presence of hydroxide ions e.g.turns moist litmus blue, slippery feel
basicity extent of base properties
biomass organic matter produced by photosynthesis; mostly cellulose
biopolymer naturally occurring polymer produced using renewable resources like micro-organisms or plants
biosphere parts of the Earth where life is found
boiling point temperature at which liquid rapidly changes with bubble formation to gas
bond attraction
bond-breaking energy absorbing process in which atoms, ions or molecules are broken apart
bond-making energy releasing process in which atoms, ions or molecules come together forming a bond
brass alloy of copper and zinc
brine concentrated salt solution
Bronsted-Lowry theory acids are proton donors, bases are proton acceptors
Bronze Age Age between Stone Age and Iron Age when the most valued tools and weapons were made of bronze
buffer mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base able to resist change in pH
button cell galvanic cell shaped like a button
calculate determine from given facts, figures or information
calorimetry measurement of heat change
carbohydrate compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with the hydrogen:oxygen ratio the same as in water
carbon-12 isotope of carbon containing six protons and six neutrons in the nucleus
carboxylic acid acid containing a carboxylic functional group –COOH
carboxylic acids acids that contain the –COOH functional group
catalyst substance which speeds up a chemical reaction and remains unchanged at the end of the reaction
catchment area from which something comes; a water catchment is land bound by hills or mountains from which surface or ground water flows
cathode electrode at which reduction occurs
cationic postitively charged
chemical change change in a substance that involves rearrangement of particles into new combinations; at least one new substance produced
chemical property property of a substance reacting with another chemical
chlorofluorocarbon CFC; compound of chlorine, fluorine and carbon only
chronology order of past events in time
collaboration working together effectively
collating information comparing different sources in order to note points of agreement and disagreement
combining power (valency) predictor of how many of an atom will combine with atoms of other elements; determined by the number of electrons in the outer shell of the atom
combustion exothermic chemical reaction in which a chemical reacts with oxygen, always releasing heat and often light
compare show how things are similar or different
complete combustion combustion in which all reacting elements react fully with oxygen e.g. complete combustion of a hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water
compound pure substance containing two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio of mass and particles
concentrated solution containing a large amount of solute in the solvent
concentration a measure of the quantity of dissolved substance in a stated quantity of solution
condensation polymer polymer formed by monomer molecules condensing out a small molecule such as water
conductivity ability to allow passage of electricity/heat
conjugate acid acid formed by addition of H+ to a base
conjugate base base formed by removal of H+ from an acid
conservation the act of saving or preserving
coordinate covalent bond covalent bond where the shared pair of electrons come from only one of the atoms joined
corrosion deterioration of any material or its properties because of chemical reaction with its environment
covalent involves sharing of electrons between atoms
covalent bond force of attraction between two atoms formed by sharing of a pair of electrons; a single covalent bond = 1 pair, a double covalent bond = 2 pairs, a triple covalent bond = 3 pairs of electrons
covalent compound compound made up of atoms joined by covalent bonds
covalent lattice related to extensive three-dimensional structures of atoms joined by covalent bonds; covalent network
covalent molecular related to small molecules
covalent network related to extensive three-dimensional structures of atomsjoined by covalent bonds; covalent lattice
data facts or figures that can be used to draw conclusions
data logger device for storing data
decarbonate removal of carbon dioxide from a solution or a solid
decomposition reaction in which one substance forms two or more substances
dehydrating agent chemical which removes water from other chemicals
dehydration loss of water
density density = mass / volume
describe provide characteristics and features
design provide the steps for an experiment, procedure or investigation
destructive testing testing of a material that changes its properties
detergent cleaning agent with surface active properties
diaphragm process process in which a diaphragm separates hydrogen gas and chlorine gas produced in the electrolysis of concentrated salt solution to sodium hydroxide solution
dilute solution containing a small amount of solute in the solvent
dipole-dipole forces attractive forces between polar molecules
discuss identify issues and provide points for and/or against
dispersion forces forces of attraction that occur between all molecules
dissolution dissolving
dissolved oxygen DO; amount of dissolved oxygen in a water sample
electrical potential
electrode metal or graphite which transfers electrons to or from an electrolyte
electrolysis chemical reaction requiring electrical energy
electrolyte liquid substance or solution through which ions can move
electrolytic cell arrangement of chemicals in which electrical energy can be used to produce new chemicals
electron configuration arrangement of electrons in an atom e.g. 2.4 for carbon shows there are 2 electrons in the energy level closest to the nucleus and 4 electrons in the next
electronegativity ability of a neutral atom to attract extra electrons (low for metals, high for non-metals)
element pure substance consisting entirely of atoms with the same positive nuclear charge (that is the same atomic number)
empirical formula formula giving the simplest whole number ratio of particles in a compound
emulsifier surface active agent that stabilises an emulsion
emulsion dispersion of one liquid in another liquid
endothermic change or reaction which absorbs heat
energy profile diagram graph showing change in the total amount of energy in all the chemicals as a reaction goes from reactants to products
energy transfer movement of the same sort of energy between objects or locations
energy transformation change from one form of energy to another e.g. chemical to heat
equilibrium situation in a reversible reaction in a closed system where the rate of forward reaction equals the rate of reverse reaction
equilibrium constant numerical value calculated for a particular equilibrium equation at a fixed temperature; symbol K
equivalence point point in a titration at which the reactants have completely reacted together in the ratio of mole quantities given in the balanced equation for the reaction
ethical following rules or standards for right conduct or practice
eutrophication excessive growth of organisms followed by decay and depletion of oxygen concentration resulting from increase in nutrient content of a body of water
evaluate make a judgement based on criteria; determine the value of
exothermic change or reaction which releases heat energy
explain relate cause and effect
explosion rapid release of energy and/or matter
explosive combustion combustion that rapidly releases heat and gases causing an explosion
explosive combustion combustion that rapidly releases heat and gases causing an explosion
fermentation controlled chemical change catalysed by enzymes from organisms such as yeast
first ionisation energy energy required to remove a single electron from a gaseous atom; usually measured in kJ per mole of atoms
fossil fuel fuel, such as coal, petroleum or natural gas, formed from the remains of past life on Earth
fractional distillation distillation of a mixture of liquids into fractions of different boiling point ranges
free radical atom or molecule with unpaired electron(s)
fuel cell cell releasing electrical energy in which a flow of fuel is oxidised without burning
functional group distinctive reactive part of an organic molecule e.g. in alkenes the functional group is C=C
galvanic cell arrangement of chemicals capable of releasing electrical energy from chemical energy; commonly called a battery
gravimetric analysis quantitative analysis using weighing
group vertical column of the Periodic Table
habitat locality where organism(s) live
haloalkane saturated hydrocarbon containing at least one halogen atom per molecule
halon bromine containing compound which can cause breakdown of ozone in the atmosphere
hardness (of solid) ability to resist applied pressure
hardness (of water) degree to which water is hard to lather with soap
heat of combustion heat change when a substance is combusted
heavy metal metal with a density above 5 g cm-3; most of these metals are poisonous
homologous series series of chemicals with the same functional group that show a gradual change in properties
hydrogen bonding bonding between the hydrogen attached to a nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine atom and a nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine atom in a nearby molecule
hydrosphere layer of water around the Earth including fresh water and salt water
hydrothermal vent opening in the ocean floor out of which hot water containing dissolved minerals passes
identify recognise and name
ignition temperature temperature at which a substance in contact with air starts to burn
incomplete combustion combustion in which at least some reacting elements do not react fully with oxygen e.g. incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon producing carbon monoxide or carbon rather than carbon dioxide
indicator substance that changes (usually in colour) when there is a change in the chemical nature of a system; an acid-base indicator changes colour according to pH
information meaningful data; data that has been processed so that it takes on meaning
intermolecular forces forces of attraction between molecules – dispersion forces between all molecules, dipole-dipole forces between polar molecules, hydrogen bonding between molecules with a hydrogen bonded to a nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine atom
ion charged particle formed from an atom of group of atoms (polyatomic ion)
ionic caused by charged particles (ions)
ionic compound compound made up of ions; solid compound that does not conduct electricity when solid but conducts electricity when liquid as the ions can move
ionic equation equation in symbols involving at least one ion
ionisation formation of an ion or ions as when an acid molecule releases a hydrogen ion and forms a negative ion
Iron Age Age between Bronze Age and the modern era when most valued implements were made of iron
isomers different structural forms of the same molecular formula
isotopes atoms of the same element; atoms wtih the same number of protons in the nucleus
IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
justify support an argument or conclusion
kinetic energy energy due to motion
kPa kiloPascal; unit of pressure
lattice arrangement of particles in a crystal
leaching process in which soluble components, e.g. salt, are removed from insoluble material, e.g. soil, by the action of a solvent, e.g. water
Lewis electron dot structure diagram showing number of electrons in the outer main energy level of an atom
limitation that which limits something
lithosphere relatively rigid and cool outside rock layer of the Earth consisting of the crust and the outermost layer of the mantle
malleability ability to be shaped without breaking
management handling, direction and control of a situation
mass number total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
mass ratio ratio of masses of pure substances reacting or produced in a chemical reaction (mass ratio of elements reacting is used, together with a knowledge of atomic masses, to calculate the empirical formula of the resulting compound)
melting point temperature at which a solid changes to liquid
membrane process process in which a membrane that water and anions cannot pass through is used to produce sodium hydroxide solution containing hardly any salt from the electrolysis of salt solution
mercury process process in which a mercury cathode in concentrated salt solution forms a sodium amalgam that is reacted with water to form high purity sodium hydroxide
metabolism all chemical reactions in a cell, part of or complete organism
metal chemical element that is malleable, has a lustre and is a good conductor of heat and electricity; three-dimensional lattice of ions in a sea of electrons
micro-technique method using small quantities
mid-ocean ridge volcanically active underocean region where crustal plates are diverging
mineral useful element or compound from the Earth
mixture mix of pure substances that may be separated by physical or mechanical methods; properties vary according to the parts and their proportions
molarity moles of solute per litre of solution
mole large number ( 6x1023) of particles; defined as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
mole ratios the relative number of moles reacting and produced in a chemical reaction e.g. in 2H2 + O2 --> 2H2O the mole ratio is 2:1-->2
molecular formula chemical formula showing the actual number of each type of atom in a molecule
molecular shape the overall form, outline or external surface of a molecule
molecular structure the arrangement of atoms within a molecule
molecules neutral particles which can move independently of each other; all molecules consist of two or more atoms joined together except for the noble gases whose molecules consist of a single atom
monitoring checking, observing or recording a situation; testing program to assess potential changes
monomer compound with small molecules able to join together to form a long chain polymer molecule
natural product extract from a natural product, typically a compound rather than an element
net ionic equation chemical equation in which the ions that are ‘spectators’ and do not react are left out as they are not part of the reaction e.g. OH– + H+ --> H2O
neutral between acid and base; having neither acidic nor basic properties
neutralisation reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water
noble gas very unreactive monatomic elements in the last group of the Periodic Table
non-destructive testing testing of a material that does not change its properties
non-ionic no ionic charge but often polar (always polar in the case of non-ionic detergents)
non-metal chemical element not possessing the properties of metals
non-polar without electric poles; used to describe molecules which do not have a positive and a negative end
non-renewable resource resource, such as copper ore or coal, which once used up is not replaced or replaced too slowly by natural processes
normal atmospheric pressure 100 kPa
order of magnitude quantity expressed to the nearest power of ten e.g. 256 has an order of magnitude of 102
ore metal bearing substance, e.g. rock, from the Earth with a commercial value
outline indicate the main features of
oxidation loss of electron(s) in a reaction
oxidising agent abbreviation: oxidant; chemical which causes oxidation - loss of electrons - by another chemical
passivating metal metal coated with a tenacious oxide layer that protects and results in less metal activity than expected
period horizontal row of the Periodic Table
Periodic Table Arrangement of chemical elements so that elements with similar properties occur at fixed intervals
periodicity tendency to recur regularly
petrochemical chemical made from compounds in petroleum or natural gas
pH –log10[H+]
pH meter millivoltmeter with scale marked in pH units that can be connected to a pH probe
pH probe pH sensitive electrode system
photosynthesis process in which green plants use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
physical change change in a substance that does not involve rearrangement of particles into new combinations; no new substance produced
physical property property of a substance measured by itself
polar molecule molecule with electric poles δ+ and δ– so that a particular end of the molecule is attracted to a charge; a polar molecule is said to have a dipole
pollution contamination by unwanted substances or energy
polymer long chain molecule formed by joining monomer molecules
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
precipitate solid material which separates from solution when solutions are mixed
precipitation falling out of a solid from solution when solutions are mixed
predict suggest what may happen based on available information
primary alkanol alkanol with the OH group on an end carbon atom
product chemical produced in a chemical reaction
propose put forward for consideration or action
qualitative concerned with features, characteristics or properties described without using numbers e.g. colour, feel, smell
qualitative analysis finding out what is present in a sample
quantitative concerned with amount
quantitative analysis finding how much is present in a sample
radioactive capable of emitting particles and energy from nuclei
radioisotope radioactive isotope
rate rate of reaction measured as change in concentration with time
reactant chemical reacting in a chemical reaction
reactivity tendency to undergo chemical reaction
recycle reuse of waste material
redox abbreviation of reduction-oxidation
reducing agent abbreviation: reductant; chemical which causes reduction - gain of electrons - by another chemical
reduction gain of electrons during a reaction
reflux / refluxing process of boiling liquid in a flask with a condenser attached so that vapours are condensed and returned to the liquid
relate provide some connection or relation to
reliability trustworthiness; degree to which repeated observations and/or measurements, taken under identical circumstances, will yield the same results
renewable resource that can be used then reformed from its products by the input of solar energy
restoration the act of bringing back to original condition
risk assessment procedure involving identification of a hazard then judgement and control of possible harm from the hazard
sanitise make disease free
saponification soap formation
saturated dissolution saturated solution in contact with undissolved solid
semi-metal element intermediate in properties between metals and non-metals
sensor sensitive part e.g. glass electrode of a pH meter
slow combustion slow reaction with oxygen
solder alloy usually of lead and tin
solute substance that dissolves
solution mixture of solute and solvent
Solvay process process for producing sodium carbonate from soidum chloride and calcium carbonate by using recycled ammonia
solvent liquid able to dissolve another substance
specific heat (capacity) number of joules of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram by one kelvin; C measured in J kg-1 K-1
spontaneous combustion slow combustion where the heat released cannot escape easily and the temperature rises until the ignition temperature is reached and fast combustion starts
standard solution solution of accurately known concentration and composition
steel alloy of iron and carbon
stoichiometry quantitative relationships in chemical reactions
straight-chained chain of carbon atoms without branching
strong acid an acid that is completely ionised in solution
strong base a base that is completely ionised in solution
sulfate reducing bacteria abbreviation SRB; anaerobic bacteria that reduce sulfate ions to hydrogen sulfide
surface tension energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid caused by attractive forces between molecules of the liquid
synthesis building up a substance from simpler substances
synthetic product product synthesised from simple chemicals
systematic name name from which the structure or formula of a chemical may be deduced
terrestrial land-based
thermal pollution addition of heat to an environment causing unwanted or harmful effects
titration technique in which a solution of unknown concentration is reacted with a solution of known concentration (a standard solution) until equivalence point is reached
transuranic element with atomic number above 92, beyond uranium
turbidity opaqueness or cloudiness of water
uncertainty of a measurement is half the quantity it was measured to e.g. a measurement made to the nearest gram has an uncertainty of ± 0.5 g
validate to make just, sound or well-founded
validity the extent to which processes and resulting data measure what was intended
vanadium redox cell cell developed at University of NSW in which solutions of vanadium(V) and vanadium(II) react releasing electrical energy
viscosity resistance of a liquid to flow
volatility measure of how readily a liquid changes to vapour
weak acid acid that is little ionised in solution
weak base base that is little ionised in solution
weathering any chemical or mechanical action of the atmosphere on rocks changing their colour, texture or chemical composition
word equation chemical reaction expressed in words e.g. hydrogen + oxygen --> water
Created by: rizzo