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SCHS Chapter 5

Glencoe Chemistry Chp. 5

amplitude of a wave is the wave's height from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough
atomic emission spectrum of an element is the set of frequencies of the electrospectrum consists of several individual lines of color, not a continuous range of colors as seen in a visible spectrum
atomic orbital a three-dimensional region around the nucleus describing the electron's probable location
aufbau principle states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available.The aufbau diagram shows the energy of each sublevel
de Broglie equation predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics: wavelength equals h/ particle mass(m) x moving at velocity (v)
electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
electromagnetic spectrum also called EM spectrum encompasses all forms of electromagnetic radiation with the only differences in the types of radiation being their frequencies and wavelengths
electron configuration the arrangement of electrons in an atom with the low energy systems more stable than high energy systems.
electron-dot structure consist of the elements's symbol represent the elements nucleus and inner level electrons surrounded by dots representing the atom's valence electrons.
energy sublevel labeled s,p, d or f according to the shapes of the atom's orbitals and are contained in the principal energy levels
frequency represent by v or the Greek letter nu. is the number of waves that pass a given point per second. Hz is the SI unit of frequency=1 wave per second represented as (1/s) or (s with the exponent -1)
ground state the lowest allowable energy state of an atom. If an atom gains energy it is in an excited state....hydrogen has atom has many different excited states
Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both velocity and position of a particle at the same time
Hund's rule states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals.
Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposites spins.
photoelectric effect electrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface (calculator powered by)
photons is a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
Planck's constant (h) E= hv.......energy equals planck's constant times velocity h= 6.626 x 10 to the -34J times s. Joule is the SI unit of energy (J)
principal energy level n specifies the atom's major energy levels. As n increases the orbital become larger the electron spends more time farther from the nucleus and the atom's energy level increases.
principal quantum number (n) indicates the relative sizes and ergies of atomic orbitals. Range in values 1 to7
quantum is the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by atom
quantum mechanical model of an atom or wave mechanical model of an atom where the atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves and makes no attempt to describe the electrons party around the nucleus
valence electrons electrons in the atom's outermost orbitals with the atom's highest principal energy level.
wavelength the Greek letter lambda is the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continue wave. Measured from crest to crest or from trough to trough. In meters, centimes or nanometers ( very small...1nm=1x10 to the -9m)
Created by: gayledains