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Chapter 3

Bio Glossary

QuestionAnswer
ORGANIC COMPOUND A COVALENTLY BONDED COMPOUND THAT CONTAINS CARBON, EXCLUDING CARBONATES AND OXIDES.
FUNCTIONAL GROUP PORTION OF A MOLECULE THAT IS ACTIVE IN A CHEMICAL REACTION AND DETERMINES THE PROPERTIES OF MANY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
MONOMER SIMPLE MOLECULE THAT CAN COMBINE WITH OTHER LIKE OR UNLIKE MOLECULES TO AKE A POLYMER.
POLYMER LARGE MOLECULE THAT IS FORMED BY MORE THAN FIVE MONOMERS, OR SMALL UNITS.
MACROMOLECULE LARGE ORGANIC MOLECULE, USUALLY A POLYMER, COMPOSED FOR HUNDREDS OR THOUSANDS OF ATOMS.
CONDENSATION REACTION CHEMICAL REACTION IN WHICH TWO OR MORE MOLECULES COMBINE TO PRODUCE WATER OR ANOTHER SIMPLE MOLECULE.
HYDROLYSIS CHEMICAL REACTION BETWEEN WATER AND ANOTHER SUBSTANCE TWO FORM TWO OR MORE NEW SUBSTANCES, A REACTION BETWEEN WATER AND SALT TO FORM AN ACID OR BASE.
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE COMPOUND THAT STORES A LARGE AMOUNT OF ENERGY.
CARBOHYDRATE ORGANIC COMPOUND THAT IS MADE OF CARBON, HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN AND PROVIDES NUTRIENTS TO THE CELLS OF LIVING THINGS.
MONOSACCHARIDE SIMPLE SUGAR THAT IS THE BASIC SUBUNIT, OR MONOMER, OF CARBOHYDRATE.
DISACCHARIDE SUGAR FORMED FROM TWO MONOSACCHARIDES.
POLYSACCHARIDE ONE OF THE CARBOHYDRATES MADE UP OF LONG CHAINS OF SIMPLE SUGARS; IT INCLUDES STARCH, CELLULOSE AND GLYCOGEN.
PROTEIN ORGANIC COMPOUND THAT IS MADE OF ONE OR MORE CHAINS OF AMINO ACIDS AND THAT IS A PRINCIPAL COMPONENT OF ALL CELLS.
AMINO ACID ORGANIC MOLECULE THAT CONTAINS CARBOXYL AND AN AMINO GROUP AND MAKES UP PROTEINS.
PEPTIDE BOND CHEMICAL BOND THAT FORMS BETWEEN THE CARBOXYL GROUP OF ONE AMINO ACID AND THE AMINO GROUP OF ANOTHER AMINO ACID.
POLYPEPTIDE LONG CHAIN OF SEVERAL AMINO ACIDS.
ENZYME A TYPE OF PROTEIN THAT SPEEDS UP METABOLIC REACTIONS IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS WITHOUT BEING PERMANENTLY CHANGED OR DESTROYED.
SUBSTRATE A PART, SUBSTANCE OR ELEMENT THAT LIES BENEATH AND SUPPORTS ANOTHER PART, SUBSTANCE OR ELEMENT. THE REACTANT IN REACTIONS CATALYZED BY ENZYMES.
ACTIVE SITE THE SITE OF AN ENZYME THAT ATTACHES TO A SUBSTRACT.
LIPID A LARGE, NONPOLAR ORGANIC MOLECULE, INCLUDING FATS AND STEROIDS: LIPIDS STORE ENERGY AND MAKE UP CELL MEMBRANES.
FATTY ACID ORGANIC ACID THAT IS CONTAINED IN LIPIDS, SUCH AS FATS AND OILS.
PHOSPHOLIPID A LIPID THAT CONTAINS PHOSPHOROUS AND THAT IS A STRUCTURAL COMPONENT IN CELL MEMBRANES.
WAX A TYPE OF STRUCTURAL LIPID CONSISTING OF A LONG FATTY-ACID CHAIN THAT IS JOINED TO A LONG ALCOHOL CHAIN.
STEROID A TYPE OF LIPID THAT CONSIST OF FOUR CARBON RINGS TO WHICH VARIOUS FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE ATTACHED AND THAT USUALLY HAS A PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.
NUCLEIC ACID ORGANIC COMPOUND, EITHER RNA O DNA WHOSE MOLECULES ARE MADE UP OF ONE OR TWO CHAINS OF NUCLEOTIDES AND CARRY GENETIC INFO.
NUCLEOTIDE IN A NUCLEIC-ACID CHAIN, A SUBUNIT THAT CONSIST OF SUGAR, A PHOSPHATE AND A NITROGENOUS BASE.
RIBONUCLEIC ACID STORES AND TRANSFERS INFORMATION FROM DNA THAT IS ESSENTIAL FOR MANUFACTURING OF PROTEINS.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) CONTAINS THE INFORMATION THAT DETERMINES THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ORGANISM.
Created by: navarroc20