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math vocab

8th grade vocabulary

TermDefinition
real numbers made up of two sets of two numbers- rational/irrational. can be written as fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, positive and negative numbers, and radicals.
rational numbers consists of integers, terminating/repeating decimals. all rational numbers can be expressed as a fraction.
integers all natural numbers, their opposites, and zero. doesn't include fractions/decimals. all whole numbers.
whole numbers consists of natural numbers and zero.
natural numbers are all counting numbers.
irrational numbers all numbers that are non-terminating/non-terminating decimals; cannot be expressed as a fraction.
real number system made of rational and irrational numbers. 5 subsets; rational, integers, whole numbers, natural numbers, irrational
radical a symbol that expressed a square root, a cube root, etc
perfect squares product of an integer multiplied by itself.
exponential notation a method of rewriting numbers- number is a base raised to an exponent.
exponent a number to which the base is not raised
power product of repeated multiplication of the same factor.
base factor that is multiplied.
prime factorization a number written as a product of its prime numbers.
product of power property when the product of two exponential notations have the same base, you add the exponents.
quotient of power property when the quotient of two exponential notations have the same base, subtract the exponents.
power to a power property take an expression that is always raised to an exponent and raised to another exponent.
power of a product property different bases, same exponents. combine bases in parentheses and raise it to the same exponent.
product of quotient property different bases, same exponent. combine bases in parentheses and raise to same exponent
zero exponents states that any term w/ an exponent of zero is equal to one
negative exponents exponents that are negative- write them as positive
scientific notation a way of expressing a long number in the form of A x 10 to a power
coefficient the multiplicative factor in scientific notation
standard form a way of expressing a number using 0-9 and place value notaiton
prefix a name that precedes a basic unit of measure
consistent an equation that has only one solution
inconsistent equation an equation with no solution, results in false statement
identity equation an equation that is true for all values of variable
inverse operation operation that undoes another operation (addition/subtraction, multiplication/division)
slope the ratio of the rise to the run
rise vertical change from point A to point B (change in y)
run horizontal change from point A to point B (change in x)
slope intercept form linear equation y=mx+b
y-intercept the y-coordinate of the point where a line intersects the y-axis
x-intercept the x-coordinate of the point where a line intersects the x-axis
linear relationship a relationship between two quantities in which there is a constant variation between them
positive slope the lines rises from left to right (uphill)
negative slope the line falls from left to right (downhill)
no slope (undefined) the line is parallel to the y-axis
zero slope the line parallel to the x-axis (no rise or fall)