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Chemistry Vocabulary

Matter is made of atoms, its anything that occupies space
Atoms the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
Protons is positively charged
Electrons in negatively charged and is found in the orbitals
Orbitals 3-D region around the nucleus
Neutrons has a neutral charge
Elements substances that cannot be broken down chemically into smaller kinds of matter
Atomic Number is equal to the number of protons
Atomic Mass or Mass Number is equal to the number of protons and nuetrons
Isotope have the same number of protons and electrons, but a different number of nuetrons
Compounds made of atoms of 2 or more elements in a fixed proportion
Chemical Bonds attractive forces that hold together atoms
Molecule simplest part of a substance that retains all the properties of the substance
Hydrogen Bonds attraction between + & -; electrons favor O over H
Ionic Bonds when an atom loses or gains electrons it becomes electrically charged
Covalent Bonds also called a molecular bond, this chemical bond involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These pairs are shared within the outer electron shell (orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus).
Non-Polar Covalent Bonds Pair of electrons shared EQUALLY by two atoms
Polar Covalent Bonds Pair of electrons shared UNEQUALLY by two atoms; Example: Water which leads to many interesting properties of water
Solid maintains a fixed volume & shape, particle move less rapidly than other states of matter
Liquid Particles move more freely than solid state of matter
Gas Little or no attraction between particles, move the most rapidly of the three states of matter
Reactants Substances that enter chemical reactions
Products Substances produced by chemical reactions
Metabolism term used to describe the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Activation Energy the energy that must be added to the reaction for it to begin
Enzymes Proteins that lower the amount of activation energy necessary for a reaction to begin in living systems
Oxidation Reaction when reactant loses one or more electron
Reduction Reaction when a reactant gains one or more electrons
Saturated Solution
Aqueous Solution
How many chemical elements are essential for life? 25
What 4 elements make up 96% of living matter? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen & Nitrogen (C, H, O & N)
What 4 elements make up the remaining 4% of living matter on earth when you eliminate C, H, O & N? Phosphorus, Calcium, Sulfur & Potassium (P, Ca, S, K)