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# Chapter 5- Thermo

### thermochemistry

Work energy used to cause an object that has mass to move W=Fd W=-PdeltaV ( - when system does work) units = J (kgm^2s^-2) F- force = ma d- distance
Heat Energy to cause an object to increase in kinetic energy (differences in temperature) energy is transferred from a hotter object to a colder one this system can exchange energy with its surroundings in the form of work and heat but cant exchange matter
Potential Energy Arises when a force is operating on an object energy being stored ie. Gravity
Kinetic energy energy of motion depends on mass and speed of the object Ek=1/2 mv^2 Atoms and molecules have mass and are in motion they pass kinetic energy. Directly related to T
Lattice Energy proportional to the changes on the ions and inversely proportional to the distance separating them in crystal.
Open system Matter and energy can be exchanged with the surroundings ie boiling water
Closed system exchange of energy can happy with matter but not with the surroundings This system can exchange energy with its surroundings in the form of work and heat but can not exchange matter
Isolated system a system in which neither energy nor energy can be exchanged with the surroundings
First Law of thermodynamics energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy is conserved. Energy is lost by a system but gained by the surroundings
Internal energy the internal energy of a system is the sum of all kinetic and potential energies of all its components Efinal-Einitial
State function a property of a system that is determined by specifying its state(P, T) The value depends only on the present state.
Endothermic A system absorbs heat ( heat entering the system)
Exothermic A system gives off heat (heat flows out of the system)
INternal energy delta E depends only on the initial and final states delta E= q+w delta E=q+(-Pdelta V)
delta E=q+(-Pdelta V) if the V doesn't change w =0 so delta E=q with a constant volume. The change in internal energy measures the heat gain or loss at constant volume
Enthalpy delta H= delta E + PV process taking place at a constant P and the only work done is the P-V work, the heat flow during the process is called enthalpy . If presure is constant than delta H= q
Enthalpy sign convention H>0 ENDOTHERMIC (+) H<0 EXOTHERMIC (-) q>0 system GAINS heat (+) q<0 system LOSES heat (-) w>0 work done ON system (+) w<0 work done BY system (-) E>0 NET GAIN of energy (+) E<0 NET LOSS of energy (-)
Calorimetry heat flow can be determined by measuring temperature change.
Heat capacity and specific heat Q=mc delta T the heat capacity for 1 mole of a substance is called the molar heat capacity the heat capacity for 1 g of a substance is called the specific heat capacity
Created by: labe