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Chapter 13

Chemical Kinetics

what is the definition of kinetics? how fast do reactions go?
rate = change of concentration (c) / change in time (t
anytime you see brackets around an equation, it is referring to: concentration a.k.a molarity
rate has units of: molar/s or mol (L x s)
disapperance refers to when the __ reacatant decreases - always negative
appearance refers to when the __ product increases - positive
2 types of rates? instantaneous & average
average rate is not that useful because it... depends on starting & ending times
average rate change in concentration measured over a nonzero time interval
this type of rate is equal to the slope of the line, at a particular point. instantaneous rate
which rate is more accurate? instantaneous
reactions can be changed with? temperature
k= rate constant
x= order of reaction with respect to A
y= order of reaction with respect to B
in rate law, the reaction order is based off of: reactant
k[conc]1. what rate order is this? 1st order
k[conc]2 is __ order 2nd order
k[conc]0 is __ order zero order
the only time k will change is if we: change the temp
what is half-life? the time required for the initial concentration to decrease by 1/2
for the symbols of isotope, a represents ___ while z is ___ and x= mass number, atomic number & element
a proton or neutron is referred to as a __ nucleon
what is a nuclide? nucleus of a specific isotope
a stable isotope does not ___ spontaneously decompose into another nuclide
we cant generate something new for this type of reaction. nuclear
what type of nuclide can spontaneously decompose into another nuclide? radioactive nuclide
heavier elements have the tendency to: break down into something else
if the number of neutrons are greater than the number of protons, this is considered a ___ stable nuclide
something is considered a stable nuclide if its atomic number goes up to 20 and ___ the number of neutrons & protons are above 20
nuclear stability is greater for nuclides containing __ even numbers of protons, neutrons or both
what are the 3 kinds of emissions from radioactive elements? alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays
alpha particles has __ energy high
beta particles has __ that originates from nucleus high energy electrons
gamma rays has a short wavelength, which means they have __ energy high
a __ describes any process when a nuclide undergoes change nuclear equation
alpha decay __ decreases the atomic number by 2 & mass number by 4
beta decay ___ increases atomic number by 1 - no change in mass number
beta particles don't exist in __ nucleus
beta emission is observed in nuclides that ___ have too many electrons to be stable
positron emission has a __ charge and ___ positive charge - decreases atomic number by 1 - no change in mass number
positron emission is seen in nuclides with __ too many protons to be stable
beta particle and positron are ___ and symbol is __ opposites - z
what happens in electron capture? an electron in a low orbital of an atom is captured by nucleus and converts protons to neutrons
radioactive decays obeys which order rate law? 1st
N= number radioactive atoms at time
number radioactive atoms present at t=0 is represented by: N0
the reaction rate is proportional to the __which is ___ collision frequency - number of molecular collisions per second
when temperature increases. what happens to collisions? it increases as well
activation energy (Ea) : minimum energy required for reaction to occur
the highest energy arrangement of atoms that occurs in the course of a reaction is known as__ activated complex
Created by: Mariahj25