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Chem Quiz Ch. 2

matter the material of the universe - has mass and takes up space
substance a sample of matter having a constant (uniform or definite) composition
atoms fundamental unit of which elements are made, smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
elements substances made by bonding two or more of the same atoms together
compounds substances made by bonding two or more different atoms in specific ways
molecules a collection of atoms bonded together that behave as a unit
allotropes different physical forms of the same element
states of matter solid, liquid, and gas
solid matter that has definite shape and volume
liquid matter that has definite volume, but takes the shape of its container
gas matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container
properties of matter properties are physical or chemical characteristics of substances
physical property
chemical property a characteristic of a substance that describes the ability of that substance to change into a different substance
physical changes changes in a substance that do not change the chemical composition of the substance
chemical changes changes in a substance that change the chemical composition of the substance
mixture two or more substances (elements or compounds) that are physically combined
homogeneous a type of mixture that is completely uniform in composition
heterogeneous a type of mixture that is not uniform in composition
distillation used to separate two or more liquids taking advantage of differences in boiling points
filtration used to separate solids from liquids, or solids from other solids
chromatography used to separate substances with different masses that dissolve in a common solvent
electrolysis used to break compounds apart into elements, or to seperate ion susing electrical charge
trace minerals mineral that is essential but present in small quantities
Law of Constant Composition a given compound always contains the same proportions
chemical formula the types of atoms and the number of each type in each unit (molecule) of s given compound
nucleus central, dense core of the atom that contains most of the mass of the atom (protons + neutrons)
proton positively charged particle found in the nucleus of the atom
neutron neutral particle found in nucleus of the atom
nucleon particle in the nucleus - refers to either protons or neutrons
electron negatively charged particle found in the region surrounding the nucleus
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus
mass number the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in a given nucleus
isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
isotope abundance percentage of that isotope that occurs naturally in an element
isotope mass mass of an atom of that isotope
atomic mass mass of an atom measured in "atomic mass units" (amu)
average atomic mass weighted average mass of atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the element
Dalton atom - original atomic theory
William Crookes cathode ray tube - invisible tays flow from cathode to anode
J.J. Thomson electron - cathode ray - plum pudding model - tiny negative particles can be emitted
Robert Millikan oil drop experiment - charge to mass ratio
Rutherford nucleus, proton - gold foil experiment - dense center of positive charge; center composed of positive particles
Bohr Bohr model - energy levels
Schrodinger quantum-mechanical model - location of electron has a probability associated with it
Chadwick neutron - center also has neutral particles
Created by: meg.minor.15