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Chemistry Part 1


Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space
Atom the smallest portion of an element
Nucleus the center part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
Proton a particle in an atom found in the nucleus that has a positive electrical charge
Neutron a particle in an atom found in the nucleus that has no electrical charge
Electron a particle in atom that has a negative charge
Element substance that cannot be seperated into a simpler substance
Periodic Table an orderly arrangement of element based on their atomic numbers
Atomic Number an element's position in the periodic table based on (and equal to ) the number of protons it has in its nucleus
Isotopes atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
Atomic Mass the mass contained in an element's nucleus, which is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
Electron Energy Level the distance at which electrons travel around the nucleus of an atom
Chemical Compound a chemical combinations of two or more atoms or elements
Chemical Reaction process that occurs when one substance is changed into another
Reactivity an element's ability or tendency to combine with another element
Chemical Bond The attractive force between atoms that is formed when atoms transfer or share their electrons 2) a connection made between atom when electrons are attracted, shared, or transferred
Valence Electrons the electrons found in the outer energy level of an atom
Octet Rule tendency of atoms to gain, lose, or share electrons with other atoms in order to have 8 electrons in their outer energy level
Electron Dot Diagram a diagram of an atom that represents its valence electrons as dots around the chemical symbol
Ionic Bond a bond formed when elements transfer (gain or lose) electrons
Ion an electrically charged ''atom'' that has either gained or lost electrons 2) an atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons so that it has a positive or negative charge
Covalent Bond a bond formed when elements share electrons
Organic Compound carbon-compounds that make up living tissue
Polar Molecule a molecule that has a partial positive charge one end and a partial negative charge on the other end
Hydrogen Bond in the case of water molecules, the weak bond that occurs when the hydrogen in one water molecule is attracted to the oxygen in another water molecule
Cohesion the attraction between molecules of the same kind
Surface Tension the film-like quality on the surface of a liquid that is caused by the attraction of the liquid molecules to themselves
Adhesion the attraction of one type of molecule to a different type of molecule
Capillary Action the tendency of a liquid to draw up into a narrow tube due to the liquid's properties of cohesions an adhesions
Specific Heat the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Celsius
Solvent a substance that dissolves another
Biological Process any process that occurs in a living organism, such as muscle movement in animals or photosynthesis in plants
pH a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
Acid a solution with more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions, having a pH less than 7
Base a solution with more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions; having a pH greater than 7
Buffer a substance that prevents the pH of a solution from changing even if a small amount of an acid or a base is added
Created by: KKB12