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Chemistry Terms

accuracy the closeness of a measured value to a standard or known value
chemistry the study of matter, its properties and the changes it undergoes
control a person, group, event, etc, that is used as a constant and unchanging standard of comparison in scientific experimentation
conversion factor ratio of the two parts of an equivalence statement that relate the two units
density the amount of matter present in a given volume of substance
dependent variable a variable that is being measured in an experiment
error used to assess accuracy with respect to how far a value if from what is expected
experiment a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact
hypothesis one or more assumptions put forth to explain observed phenomena
independent variable a variable that is manipulated in an experiment
mass the amount of matter an object contains
matter anything that has mass and occupies space
observation something that is witnessed and can be recorded
percent error used to assess accuracy as the relative difference, calculated as a percentage
precision the closeness of two or more measurements to each other
qualitative measurements collection of information that is not numerical
quantitative measurements measurement of data that can be put into numbers
reliable knowledge has a high probability of being true because it has been justified by a reliable method
science a system of knowledge and the methods used to find that knowledge
scientific law statement that summarizes generally observed behavior
scientific method a systematic method of collecting, analyzing, and communicating knowledge
scientific notation a power of ten with one digit to the left of the decimal point
scientific theory an interpretation; a possible explanation of why nature behaves in a particular way
significant figures the numbers recorded in a measurement (all the certain numbers plus the first uncertain number)
units part of a measurement that tells us what scale of standard is being used
volume the amount of space an object occupies
megameters (Mm) 10^6m 1 Mm = 1,000,000m
Kilometer (km) 10^3m 1 km = 1,000m
Decimeter (dm) 10^-1m 1 dm = 0.1m or 10 dm = 1m
Centimeter (cm) 10^-2m 1 cm = 0.01m or 100 cm = 1m
Millimeter (mm) 10^-3m 1 mm = 0.001 m or 1000mm = 1m
Micrometer (um) 10^-6m 1um = 0.000001m or 1,000,000um = 1m
Nanometer (nm) 10^-9m 1nm = 0.000000001m or 1,000,000,000nm = 1m
100 cm 1m
1,000 mm 1m
10 mm 1 cm
1,000 m 1 km
1,000mg 1 g
1,000g 1 kg
1,000 mL 1 L
1cm^3 1mL
1 mL 1g
sig figs nonzero (5783) always significant
423 find sig fig three sig fig
sig figs leading zeroes (.03) never significant
0.0025 find sig fig two sig fig
sig figs captive zeroes (3.05) always significant
20.06 - find sig figs four sig fig
sig figs trailing zeroes only significant if the number is written with a decimal point
200 - find sig fig one sig fig
2.00 - find sig fig three sig fig
exact numbers sig figs not obtained by measuring; have an unlimited # of sig figs
Created by: meg.minor.15