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Functional Groups


Alkane - Hydrocarbon Family - C-C and C- H bonds only - Saturated - aliphatic compound - CnH2n+2 - non-polar
Alkene - Hydrocarbon Family - C=C - unsaturated - olefin - CnH2n (same as cycloalkanes) - non-polar
Alkyne - Hydrocarbon Family - C triple bond C - unsaturated - CnH2n-2 (same as cycloalkenes) - non-polar
Arene - Hydrocarbon Family - C6H6 - unsaturated - benzene - non-polar
Haloalkane or Alkyl Halide - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - R-X (Carbon-halogen; alkyl/cycloalkyl - halogen) - polar
Alcohol - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - R-OH - polar
Ether - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - R-O-R' or R-O-R
Amine - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - R-N
Nitrile - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - R-C triple bond N (R-CN) - polar
Nitro - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - R-NO2 - polar
Sulfide - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - R-S-R' or R-S-R
Sulfoxide - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - O=S-R R
Sulfone - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family R - O=S=O R
Thiol - Heteroatom-Substituted Hydrocarbon Family - R-S-H
Aldehyde Carbonyl Family R-C(=O)-H
Ketone - Carbonyl Family - O II R - C - R'
Carboxylic Acid - Carbonyl Family - O II R - C - OH - polar - weak acid
Acid Halide - Carbonyl Family - O II R-C- X
Anhydride - Carbonyl Family - O O II II R-C-O-C-R'
Ester - Carbonyl Family - O II R-C-OR' - polar
Lactone - Carbonyl Family - cyclic esters
Amide - Carbonyl Family------O--------------------------- - R-C-NH2
Lactame - Carbonyl Family - cyclic amides
Created by: amna21