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# Basic Statistics

### Basic Statistics Defintions

Ratio A fraction that divides two quantities.
Rate A ratio that reflects soem quantity per a certain unit.
Percentage A number between 0 and 100 that reflects a proportion of the whole.
Response Rate The number of respondents divided by the number of surveys sent out.
Statistics The entire process involved in gathering evidence to answer questions about the world, in cases where that evidence is numerical data.
Population Group of individuals that one wishes to study in order to answer a research question.
Sample A small number of individuals selected from the population that are studied and that information is used to draw conclusions about the whole population.
Random Sample Every member of the population is given an equal chance of being selelcted.
Bias Systematic favoritism that is present in the data collection process resulting inmisleading results.
Data Actual measurements that are gained through a study; either numerical or categorical.
Numerical Data Data that has meaning as a measurement; also known as quantitative data.
Categorical Data Data that represents characteristics; also known as qualitative data.
Data Set The collection of data taken from a sample.
Statistic A number that summarizes the data collected from a sample.
Census Data collected from the entire population.
Parameter A single number that summarizes all the of the census information.
Mean (average) The sum of all of the numbers divided by the total number of numbers.
Outliers very large or very small values in the data set that are not typical.
Median The point at which there are an equal number of data points whose values lie above and below the median value.
Standard Deviation The average distance from the mean.
Percentile The percentage of values in the data set that fall below the certain score.
Relative Standing How an individual data value compares to the rest of the group.
Standard Score The number of standard deviations above or below the mean.
Bell-Shaped Curve The most common type of data distribution in which most of the data is centered around the average in a big group.
Normal Distribution Describes the data that follow a bell-shaped pattern.
Experiment A study that imposes a certain amount of control on the study's subjects and theri enviroment.
Survey A measurement tool that is most often used to gather people's opinions.
Margin of Error Measures the maximum amount by which the sample results are expected to differ from those of the actual population.
Probability Measurement of likelihood of an event happening.
Hypothesis Test Statistical procedure in which daya are collected and measured against a claim about a population.
Correlation Two numerical variables have a linear relationship.
Created by: divinefury

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