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# Basic Statistics

### Basic Statistics Defintions

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Ratio | A fraction that divides two quantities. |

Rate | A ratio that reflects soem quantity per a certain unit. |

Percentage | A number between 0 and 100 that reflects a proportion of the whole. |

Response Rate | The number of respondents divided by the number of surveys sent out. |

Statistics | The entire process involved in gathering evidence to answer questions about the world, in cases where that evidence is numerical data. |

Population | Group of individuals that one wishes to study in order to answer a research question. |

Sample | A small number of individuals selected from the population that are studied and that information is used to draw conclusions about the whole population. |

Random Sample | Every member of the population is given an equal chance of being selelcted. |

Bias | Systematic favoritism that is present in the data collection process resulting inmisleading results. |

Data | Actual measurements that are gained through a study; either numerical or categorical. |

Numerical Data | Data that has meaning as a measurement; also known as quantitative data. |

Categorical Data | Data that represents characteristics; also known as qualitative data. |

Data Set | The collection of data taken from a sample. |

Statistic | A number that summarizes the data collected from a sample. |

Census | Data collected from the entire population. |

Parameter | A single number that summarizes all the of the census information. |

Mean (average) | The sum of all of the numbers divided by the total number of numbers. |

Outliers | very large or very small values in the data set that are not typical. |

Median | The point at which there are an equal number of data points whose values lie above and below the median value. |

Standard Deviation | The average distance from the mean. |

Percentile | The percentage of values in the data set that fall below the certain score. |

Relative Standing | How an individual data value compares to the rest of the group. |

Standard Score | The number of standard deviations above or below the mean. |

Bell-Shaped Curve | The most common type of data distribution in which most of the data is centered around the average in a big group. |

Normal Distribution | Describes the data that follow a bell-shaped pattern. |

Experiment | A study that imposes a certain amount of control on the study's subjects and theri enviroment. |

Survey | A measurement tool that is most often used to gather people's opinions. |

Margin of Error | Measures the maximum amount by which the sample results are expected to differ from those of the actual population. |

Probability | Measurement of likelihood of an event happening. |

Hypothesis Test | Statistical procedure in which daya are collected and measured against a claim about a population. |

Correlation | Two numerical variables have a linear relationship. |