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Electricity Def'ns

TermDefinition
Electric Charge Indicates if a body has an excess or deficiency of electrons
Conductor Any substance through which electric charge can flow
Insulator Any substance through which electric charge can not flow
Point Discharge Where ions in the air are either strongly attracted or repelled from the tip of a charged conductor and move towards or away from it
Electric Field The region of space in which electric charges at rest experience a force (called an electrostatic force)
Electric Field Line Line along which a positive charge would move if place in an electric field
Electric Field Strength Force per unit positive charge at a point in an electric field
Potential Difference Work done in moving a charge of one coulomb from one point to another; also known as voltage
Electromotive Force A voltage that is applied to a circuit
Capacitor Electrical device capable of storing electric charge
Capacitance The ratio of the charge on a capacitor to the potential difference applied across it
Electric Current Flow of electric charge
Resistance The ratio of voltage across a body to the current through it
Resistor Device that converts electrical potential energy to some other form
Resistivity A constant associated with the resistance of a body; equal to the product of the resistance of a body and its cross-sectional area divided by its length
Semiconductor Substance whose resistivity is between that of a good conductor and good insulator
Doping The addition of a small amount of another element to a pure semiconductor to increase its conductivity
Intrinsic conduction Movement of charge through a pure semiconductor
Extrinsic conduction Movement of charge through a doped semiconductor
Electron Hole The lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom
N-type Semiconductor where doping produces more free electrons available for conduction
P-type Semiconductor where doping produces more holes available for conduction
p-n Junction Diode Semiconductor device that allows current to flow in one direction only
Light Dependent Resistor Semiconductor device whose resistance varies from a high value in the dark to a lower value in bright light
Thermistor Semiconductor device whose resistance decreases rapidly with increasing temperature
Magnetism When certain materials exert attractive or repulsive forces on other metals
Magnetic Field Region of space where magnetic forces can be felt
Magnetic Field Line Indicates the direction a magnetic north would travel in a magnetic field if free to do so
Magnetic Flux Density Measure of the strength of a magnetic field
Ampere Constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible cross section and placed one meter apart in a vacuum, would produce a force on each conductor of 2x10^-7 newtons per metre length
Magnetic Flux Total amount of magnetic field in a given region; it is the product of magnetic flux density and area
Electromagnetic Induction Where an emf is induced by a change in the magnetic flux linking a circuit
Alternating Current Electric current whose direction reverses periodically
Direct Current Electric current that flows continuously in the same direction
Mutual Induction Where a changing magnetic field in one coil induces an emf in another coil
Transformer Electrical device used to change the voltage of a.c. power supplies
Self-induction Where a changing magnetic field in a coil induces an emf in the coil itself
Inductor An electrical device used to induce a back emf
Created by: conordesmond