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matter and change

unit 2

matter is described using properties that are extensive or intensive
extensive properties property that depends on the amount ex. volume
intensive properties property that doesn't depend on amount ex. density
all matter can be divided into substances and mixtures
substance uniform and definite composition
substances can be classified as elements or compounds
element simplest form of matter with unique set of properties
compound 2 or more elements chemically combined in fixed ratios
mixture physical blend of 2+ compounds
heterogenous mixture composition not same ex. chicken noodle soup
homogenous mixture aka solution; composition same throughout ex. alloys and salt
mixtures can be seperated physically
filtration solid from liquid
distillation liquid from liquid or solid
physical property doesnt change nature of sample
physical change composition of material doesn't change
physical changes don't involve chemical reactions
in physical changes there is no breaking or forming chemical bonds
chemical property ability of a substance to undergo chemical reaction
chemical change composition of matter will always change
signs of chemical change transfer of energy, color change, gas production, formation of precipitate
law of conservation of mass mass isn't created or destroyed only transformed
all states of matter changes are physical
intermolecular forces forces BETWEEN individual molecules; strong by numbers, contribute to physical changes
intramolecular forces forces WITHIN a specific individual molecule, very strong by themselves, contributes to chemical changes
states of matter solid, liquid, gas, plasma
solid definite shape, definite volume, incompressable, partcles tighly packed- ordered, vibrations (not fluid)
liquid indefinite shape, definite volume, incompressable, particles in contact but disorderky packed, particles flow (fluid)
gas indefinite shape, indefinite volume, highly compressable, particles far apart, little contact, collision, particles flow (fluid)
gas particles lots of space between, rapid motion, exerts pressure=billions of collisions, spontaneously expands
earth is __% nitrogen 78%
earth is __% oxygen 20%
earth is __% water 1%
endothermic requires heat
exothermic releases heat
melting solid to liquid, endothermic, particles have enough energy to begin to flow, melting point- temp when liquid forms
freezing liquid to solid, exothermic, particles lose energy and slow down, freezing point temp when solid forms
boiling liquid to gas, endothermic, particles have enough energy to break away, boiling point temp when gas forms
condensation gas to liquid, exothermic, particles stick together, same as boiling pt
sublimation solid to gas, endothermic, no liquied stage ex. dry ice
deposition gas to solid, no liquid stage, exothermic ex. snowing
Created by: carolineeasley