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OpenStax Chem 19

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9

TermDefinition
actinide series (also, actinoid series) actinium and the elements in the second row or the f-block, atomic numbers 89–103
bidentate ligand ligand that coordinates to one central metal through coordinate bonds from two different atoms
central metal ion or atom to which one or more ligands is attached through coordinate covalent bonds
chelate complex formed from a polydentate ligand attached to a central metal
chelating ligand ligand that attaches to a central metal ion by bonds from two or more donor atoms
cis configuration configuration of a geometrical isomer in which two similar groups are on the same side of an imaginary reference line on the molecule
coordination compound stable compound in which the central metal atom or ion acts as a Lewis acid and accepts one or more pairs of electrons
coordination compound substance consisting of atoms, molecules, or ions attached to a central atom through Lewis acid-base interactions
coordination number number of coordinate covalent bonds to the central metal atom in a complex or the number of closest contacts to an atom in a crystalline form
coordination sphere central metal atom or ion plus the attached ligands of a complex
crystal field splitting (Δoct) difference in energy between the t2g and eg sets or t and e sets of orbitals
crystal field theory model that explains the energies of the orbitals in transition metals in terms of electrostatic interactions with the ligands but does not include metal ligand bonding
d-block element one of the elements in groups 3–11 with valence electrons in d orbitals
donor atom atom in a ligand with a lone pair of electrons that forms a coordinate covalent bond to a central metal
eg orbitals set of two d orbitals that are oriented on the Cartesian axes for coordination complexes; in octahedral complexes, they are higher in energy than the t2g orbitals
f-block element (also, inner transition element) one of the elements with atomic numbers 58–71 or 90–103 thathave valence electrons in f orbitals; they are frequently shown offset below the periodic table
first transition series transition elements in the fourth period of the periodic table (first row of the d-block), atomic numbers 21–29
fourth transition series transition elements in the seventh period of the periodic table (fourth row of the d-block), atomic numbers 89 and 104–111
geometric isomers isomers that differ in the way in which atoms are oriented in space relative to each other, leading to different physical and chemical properties
high-spin complex complex in which the electrons maximize the total electron spin by singly populating all of the orbitals before pairing two electrons into the lower-energy orbitals
hydrometallurgy process in which a metal is separated from a mixture by first converting it into soluble ions, extracting the ions, and then reducing the ions to precipitate the pure metal
ionization isomer (or coordination isomer) isomer in which an anionic ligand is replaced by the counter ion in the inner coordination sphere
lanthanide series (also, lanthanoid series) lanthanum and the elements in the first row or the f-block, atomic numbers 57–71
ligand ion or neutral molecule attached to the central metal ion in a coordination compound
linkage isomer coordination compound that possesses a ligand that can bind to the transition metal in two different ways (CN− vs. NC−)
low-spin complex complex in which the electrons minimize the total electron spin by pairing in the lower-energy orbitals before populating the higher-energy orbitals
monodentate ligand that attaches to a central metal through just one coordinate covalent bond
optical isomer (also, enantiomer) molecule that is a nonsuperimposable mirror image with identical chemical and physical properties, except when it reacts with other optical isomers
pairing energy (P) energy required to place two electrons with opposite spins into a single orbital
platinum metals group of six transition metals consisting of ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, iridium, palladium, and platinum that tend to occur in the same minerals and demonstrate similar chemical properties
polydentate ligand ligand that is attached to a central metal ion by bonds from two or more donor atoms, named with prefixes specifying how many donors are present (e.g., hexadentate = six coordinate bonds formed)
rare earth element collection of 17 elements including the lanthanides, scandium, and yttrium that often occur together and have similar chemical properties, making separation difficult
second transition series transition elements in the fifth period of the periodic table (second row of the d-block), atomic numbers 39–47
smelting process of extracting a pure metal from a molten ore
spectrochemical series ranking of ligands according to the magnitude of the crystal field splitting they induce
steel material made from iron by removing impurities in the iron and adding substances that produce alloys with properties suitable for specific uses
strong-field ligand ligand that causes larger crystal field splittings
superconductor material that conducts electricity with no resistance
t2g orbitals set of three d orbitals aligned between the Cartesian axes for coordination complexes; in octahedral complexes, they are lowered in energy compared to the eg orbitals according to CFT
third transition series transition elements in the sixth period of the periodic table (third row of the d-block), atomic numbers 57 and 72–79
trans configuration configuration of a geometrical isomer in which two similar groups are on opposite sides of an imaginary reference line on the molecule
weak-field ligand ligand that causes small crystal field splittings
Created by: point4christ