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OpenStax Chem 18

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9

acid anhydride compound that reacts with water to form an acid or acidic solution
alkaline earth metal any of the metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium) occupying group 2 of the periodic table; they are reactive, divalent metals that form basic oxides
allotropes two or more forms of the same element, in the same physical state, with different chemical structures
amorphous solid material such as a glass that does not have a regular repeating component to its three-dimensional structure; a solid but not a crystal
base anhydride metal oxide that behaves as a base towards acids
bicarbonate anion salt of the hydrogen carbonate ion, HCO3−
bismuth heaviest member of group 15; a less reactive metal than other representative metals
borate compound containing boron-oxygen bonds, typically with clusters or chains as a part of the chemical structure carbonate salt of the anion CO3 2−; often formed by the reaction of carbon dioxide with bases
chemical reduction method of preparing a representative metal using a reducing agent
chlor-alkali process electrolysis process for the synthesis of chlorine and sodium hydroxide
disproportionation reaction chemical reaction where a single reactant is simultaneously reduced and oxidized; it is both the reducing agent and the oxidizing agent
Downs cell electrochemical cell used for the commercial preparation of metallic sodium (and chlorine) from molten sodium chloride
Frasch process important in the mining of free sulfur from enormous underground deposits
Haber process main industrial process used to produce ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen; involves the use of an iron catalyst and elevated temperatures and pressures
halide compound containing an anion of a group 17 element in the 1− oxidation state (fluoride, F−; chloride, Cl−; bromide, Br−; and iodide, I−)
Hall–Héroult cell electrolysis apparatus used to isolate pure aluminum metal from a solution of alumina in molten cryolite
hydrogen carbonate salt of carbonic acid, H2CO3 (containing the anion HCO3−) in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced; an acid carbonate; also known as bicarbonate ion
hydrogen halide binary compound formed between hydrogen and the halogens: HF, HCl, HBr, and HI
hydrogen sulfate HSO4− ion
hydrogen sulfite HSO3 − ion
hydrogenation addition of hydrogen (H2) to reduce a compound
hydroxide compound of a metal with the hydroxide ion OH− or the group −OH
interhalogen compound formed from two or more different halogens
metal atoms of the metallic elements of groups 1, 2, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, which form ionic compounds by losing electrons from their outer s or p orbitals
metalloid element that has properties that are between those of metals and nonmetals; these elements are typically semiconductors
nitrate NO3− ion; salt of nitric acid
nitrogen fixation formation of nitrogen compounds from molecular nitrogen
Ostwald process industrial process used to convert ammonia into nitric acid
oxide binary compound of oxygen with another element or group, typically containing O2− ions or the group –O– or =O
ozone allotrope of oxygen; O3
passivation metals with a protective nonreactive film of oxide or other compound that creates a barrier for chemical reactions; physical or chemical removal of the passivating film allows the metals to demonstrate their expected chemical reactivity
peroxide molecule containing two oxygen atoms bonded together or as the anion, O2 2−
photosynthesis process whereby light energy promotes the reaction of water and carbon dioxide to form carbohydrates and oxygen; this allows photosynthetic organisms to store energy
Pidgeon process chemical reduction process used to produce magnesium through the thermal reaction of magnesium oxide with silicon
polymorph variation in crystalline structure that results in different physical properties for the resulting compound
representative element element where the s and p orbitals are filling
representative metal metal among the representative elements
silicate compound containing silicon-oxygen bonds, with silicate tetrahedra connected in rings, sheets, or three- dimensional networks, depending on the other elements involved in the formation of the compounds
sulfate SO4 2− ion
sulfite SO3 2− ion
superoxide oxide containing the anion O2−
Created by: point4christ